PSYC 363 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Androcentrism, Gynocentrism, Male Privilege
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Study Guides for readings after the midterm Part 1
Hegarty, P., & Buechel, C. (2006). Androcentric Reporting of Gender Differences in APA Journals: 1965–
2004. Review of General Psychology, 10, 377–389.
What is “androcentrism?”
- Implicit conflation of maleness with humanity and the consequent attribution of gender differences to females,
often to women’s disadvantage
-Androcentric thinking assumes maleness to be normative and attributes gender differences to females
In what ways do Hegarty and Buechel look for evidence of androcentrism in psychology journals? In other words, what
are the different types of data that they looked at for evidence of androcentrism (for example, the “generic he”).
-Androcentrism evidenced by visuospatial representations
-Androcentric pronouns, explanations, tables and graphs in journals
-Tables and graphs depict gender differences = positioned males data before females, except when gender
difference among parents were concerned
-Abstracts and titles referenced attributes of women significantly more than attributes of men
Make sure you know why each of these different types of androcentrism (for example, “generic he”, men coming first in a
visiospatial display, etc.) can be interpreted as androcentric.
-Androcentric thinking – conflation of males with the norm = men taken as default for several social categories =
judgments about “men” and “people” more similar than judgments about “women” and “people” in regard to
stereotypes of national groups, mental health standards, attitudes toward sexual minorities
-Social categories appear to be implicitly represented as male more often (toys)
-Generic masculine pronouns to refer to inviduals and groups – “he” and “she” not equivalent terms in English
“He” commonly used because can be used to refer to persons of unknown gender – generic “he” sometimes
described as “natural” usage due to reforms by grammarians in past who presumed superiority of males
-Androcentric language not recognized as sexist by all especially those whose more sexist themselves
In what ways do the authors find evidence of androcentrism, and where do they NOT find evidence of androcentrism?
- In language, abstracts have been more likely to position females as “more than or less than” males rather than male
as “more/less than”, but not found among parts
-Not so much in cognitive psychology, or in things where females are more typical of overarching category (ex.
How does androcentrism reinforce male privilege?
-Androcentric pronouns – impact how we think of women and men
-Children give lower estimates for female workers performance when workers are described as “he” and not “they”,
he and she , or she
-BIAS: leads to attribution of gender differences to women’s nature more than men’s nature = more general
tendency to attribute intergroup differences to those groups not considered to be default for larger social category
-Sexual orientation differences attributed to lesbians and gay men more than heterosexuals, same with race
-Contribute to perpetration of male privilege because norms communicated more by what goes on unspoken and
taken for granted
-Reify stereotypes particularly when attributed t biological factors
-Gender differences can create stereotype threat
-Psychology = reports of “gender different” not simply about gender it’s about women and girls more than men and
boys = contribute to degree to which women have gender and black have race more than men and whites
Where did the authors find evidence of gynocentrism? What are the implications of that for gender roles?
-Gynocentric- displays that positioned data about men underneath or to right of data about women
-Androcentrism would be evidenced by visuospatial displays that positioned data about men to left or above data
-Evidenced in construction of psychological gender differences among parents =assumed androcentric biases not
consequences of negative beliefs about women but results from shared cognitive structures that positioned men as
more typical members of human than women so within categories where women more typical such effects
predicted to be absent or reversed
Be sure you can generate and recognize examples of androcentrism. (ex. Jobs)
King E.B., Reilly, C., & Hebl, M. (2008). The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Exploring Dual Perspectives of
“Coming Out” in the Workplace. Group & Organization Management 33, 566-601.
From the introduction:
What aspect of sexual orientation complicated the threat of discrimination for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people? How
does this aspect of sexual orientation lead to complications?
For sexual minorities, what are the potential costs and benefits of "coming out"?
Why is it important for organizations to attend to the experiences of "sexual minorities?" Why might they want to create
climates that make it easy for sexual minorities to be open about their sexual orientation?
How might "coming out" benefit sexual minorities as a group ("collective" is the word used in the paper).
How do workplace experiences differ for sexual minorities who are "out" compared to those who are "closeted"?
What do the authors mean by the "directness" of the disclosure of sexual orientation?
Research by Clair & colleagues (2005) suggests there are four main motivations for people to disclose a stigmatized
identity. What are they? (pp. 574-575)
How were timing of disclosure, method (directness) of disclosure, and organizational climate related to the positivity of
coming out experiences for gay and lesbian participants? Which of these factors do the authors conclude was most
important for determining the positivity of coming out experiences?
For heterosexual participants, what factors predicted the positivity of their experiences with gay and lesbian coworkers
disclosing their sexual orientation? After controlling for individuals' attitudes toward homosexuality, how was timing
related to the positivity of experience?
Bosson, J.K., Prewitt-Freilino, J.L., Taylor, J.N. (2005) Role Rigidity: A Problem of Identity
Misclassification? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 552-565.
According to this research, what is one reason why men might feel uncomfortable engaging in stereotypically feminine
-Falsely accused deviates – liable to get misclassified as homosexual
-Misclassify them into socially devalued groups
-Falsely accused deviant may carry psychosocial burden similar to that borne by knowledge that one is a true target
-Presumed to be gay or likely to become gay – receive punishment in form of homophobic things “fag”etc.
withdrawal of parental attention, rejection from peers, negative evaluation from strangers
In the introduction, the authors review research on how people respond to boys and men who engage in stereotypically
feminine behaviors. What does that research indicate about how perceive and respond to boys and men engaged in these
Study guides for readings after the midterm part 1. Androcentric reporting of gender differences in apa journals: 1965 : review of general psychology, 10, 377 389. Implicit conflation of maleness with humanity and the consequent attribution of gender differences to females, often to women"s disadvantage. Androcentric thinking assumes maleness to be normative and attributes gender differences to females. In other words, what are the different types of data that they looked at for evidence of androcentrism (for example, the generic he ). Androcentric pronouns, explanations, tables and graphs in journals. Tables and graphs depict gender differences = positioned males data before females, except when gender difference among parents were concerned. Abstracts and titles referenced attributes of women significantly more than attributes of men. Make sure you know why each of these different types of androcentrism (for example, generic he , men coming first in a visiospatial display, etc. ) can be interpreted as androcentric.