Study Guides for readings after the midterm Part 1
Hegarty, P., & Buechel, C. (2006). Androcentric Reporting of Gender Differences in APA Journals: 1965
2004. Review of General Psychology, 10, 377389.
What is androcentrism?
- Implicit conflation of maleness with humanity and the consequent attribution of gender differences to females,
often to womens disadvantage
- Androcentric thinking assumes maleness to be normative and attributes gender differences to females
In what ways do Hegarty and Buechel look for evidence of androcentrism in psychology journals? In other words, what
are the different types of data that they looked at for evidence of androcentrism (for example, the generic he).
- Androcentrism evidenced by visuospatial representations
- Androcentric pronouns, explanations, tables and graphs in journals
- Tables and graphs depict gender differences = positioned males data before females, except when gender
difference among parents were concerned
- Abstracts and titles referenced attributes of women significantly more than attributes of men
Make sure you know why each of these different types of androcentrism (for example, generic he, men coming first in a
visiospatial display, etc.) can be interpreted as androcentric.
- Androcentric thinking conflation of males with the norm = men taken as default for several social categories =
judgments about men and people more similar than judgments about women and people in regard to
stereotypes of national groups, mental health standards, attitudes toward sexual minorities
- Social categories appear to be implicitly represented as male more often (toys)
- Generic masculine pronouns to refer to inviduals and groups he and she not equivalent terms in English
He commonly used because can be used to refer to persons of unknown gender generic he sometimes
described as natural usage due to reforms by grammarians in past who presumed superiority of males
- Androcentric language not recognized as sexist by all especially those whose more sexist themselves
In what ways do the authors find evidence of androcentrism, and where do they NOT find evidence of androcentrism?
- In language, abstracts have been more likely to position females as more than or less than males rather than male
as more/less than, but not found among parts
- Not so much in cognitive psychology, or in things where females are more typical of overarching category (ex.
How does androcentrism reinforce male privilege?
- Androcentric pronouns impact how we think of women and men
- Children give lower estimates for female workers performance when workers are described as he and not they,
he and she , or she
- BIAS: leads to attribution of gender differences to womens nature more than mens nature = more general
tendency to attribute intergroup differences to those groups not considered to be default for larger social category
- Sexual orientation differences attributed to lesbians and gay men more than heterosexuals, same with race
- Contribute to perpetration of male privilege because norms communicated more by what goes on unspoken and
taken for granted
- Reify stereotypes particularly when attributed t biological factors
- Gender differences can create stereotype threat
- Psychology = reports of gender different not simply about gender its about women and girls more than men and
boys = contribute to degree to which women have gender and black have race more than men and whites
Where did the authors find evidence of gynocentrism? What are the implications of that for gender roles?
- Gynocentric- displays that positioned data about men underneath or to right of data about women
- Androcentrism would be evidenced by visuospatial displays that positioned data about men to left or above data
- Evidenced in construction of psychological gender differences among parents =assumed androcentric biases not
consequences of negative beliefs about women but results from shared cognitive structures that positioned men as
www.notesolution.commore typical members of human than women so within categories where women more typical such effects
predicted to be absent or reversed
Be sure you can generate and recognize examples of androcentrism. (ex. Jobs)
King E.B., Reilly, C., & Hebl, M. (2008). The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Exploring Dual Perspectives of
Coming Out in the Workplace. Group & Organization Management 33, 566-601.
From the introduction:
What aspect of sexual orientation complicated the threat of discrimination for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people? How
does this aspect of sexual orientation lead to complications?
For sexual minorities, what are the potential costs and benefits of "coming out"?
Why is it important for organizations to attend to the experiences of "sexual minorities?" Why might they want to create
climates that make it easy for sexual minorities to be open about their sexual orientation?
How might "coming out" benefit sexual minorities as a group ("collective" is the word used in the paper).
How do workplace experiences differ for sexual minorities who are "out" compared to those who are "closeted"?
What do the authors mean by the "directness" of the disclosure of sexual orientation?
Research by Clair & colleagues (2005) suggests there are four main motivations for people to disclose a stigmatized
identity. What are they? (pp. 574-575)
How were timing of disclosure, method (directness) of disclosure, and organizational climate related to the positivity of
coming out experiences for gay and lesbian parti