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ch9 all definitions

Course Code
PSYC 365
David Cox

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Chapter 9 ~ Health and Physical Activity
Exercise -Gauvin and Spence; leisure activity (as opposed to occupational physical activity) undertaken with specific external objective, such as
improvement of fitness, physical performance or health, in which the participant is advised to conform to recommended mode, intensity,
frequency, and duration of such activity
-Intention important, not exercise if walking is part of work or chore
Physical activity-Expenditure of energy, either purposely or without intention, as a result of bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles as part of
leisure or work activities
-Four parameters
1. Typeidentifies physiological systems that are used in particular activity such as aerobic, strength, endurance, flexibility
2. Frequency – how much activity is engaged in over a time period
3. Intensity – load imposed on physiological systems by an activity (eg. Strenuous)
4. Duration – indicates the temporal length of particular activity
-Cox – to be meaningful = need a purpose” (purpose need to be more meaningful and immediate than wanting to lose weight or fit)
Physical fitness -Physiological that influences the ability to perform physical activity
Sport -Activity that involves rules or limits, sense of history, aspect of winning and losing, emphasis on physical exertion in context of
-Wann – activities involving powers and skills, competition and strategy, and /or chance, and engaged in for enjoyment, satisfaction and or
person gain of participant /others
Active leisure -Positive experience that’s associated with activities such as hobbies, play musical instrument, exercise
Passive leisure -Positive experience that’s associated d with lack of activity (eg. Listening to music, daydream)
Isotonic exercise -Exercise that involves using weights or calisthenics to place tension on msucle through shortening or lengthening of muscle group
-Most exertion occurs in one direction
-Overtime improves both muscle and endurance
Isokinetic exercise -Exercise that involves place tension on a muscle group through a complete range of motion
-Most efficient to develop muscle strength and endurance
-Difficulty need specialized + expensive equipments to vary load placed on muscles according to strength and position
Anaerobic exercise -Exercise, such as sprinting, which intense effort is expended over short period of time, resulting in an oxygen debt
-Oxygen less than oxygen required, so deficit needs to be made up gasp for air”
Aerobic exercise -Exercise that involves increased consumption of oxygen over an extended period of time
-Oxygen taken in is sufficient to replace that’s being used – no oxygen deficit
-Sustained nature that produce health benefits, as intensity and duration of exercise stimulates cardiovascular, pulmonary, muscular
systems = improve efficacy which body uses oxygen
-Jogging, swimming, cycling, paced walking, soccer, etc.
Perceived self-efficacy-Bandura; people’s judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute course of action required to attain designated types of
-Not concerned with skills one has but with judgements of what one can do with the skills
Self-confidence -Global trait associated with overall performance expectations
-Permeates physical activity but don’t indicate direction
-Individual have require skills and appropriate incentives in place, self-efficacy will predict actual performance
Challengeskills (CS)
-Not objective skills that’s critical in balance but how one perceives one’s skills in relation to relevant challenges
-Important to realize what you believe you can do will determine your actual experience more than your actual abilities
-(Bandura) Experiencing upper reaches of performance achievements
-Overcoming physical barriers that seemed insurmountable 4 minute mile”
-Belief that it could be done, overcame mental limitation, not physical one
Development of resilient
-Bandura; successful athletes believe in their ability to focus on task, ignore distractions, deal with mistakes and failures, cope with fatigue
and pain, perform to best of their ability in circumstances in which they find themselves
-Aka. Enactive attainments - Actual experiences of mastery, considered to be most influential source of self-efficacy
-Success increases self-efficacy; failing decreases it Factors such as perceived difficult, effort expended, adverse external
circumstances, temporal sequencing of events affect strength of relationship
-Early failure may decrease efficacy but overcome later as result of commitment and effort which strengthen their belief even most
difficult obstacles can be mastered
-Can be generalize to other situations, but degree of similarity to original task will determine extent of generalization process
Vicarious experience -Experience that’s gained through observing or visualizing others perform a skill, which can alert one to one’s own capabilities and raise
one’s sense of self-efficacy
-if they can do it, so can I”teach us better ways to do things
-Observing person whom we feel competent fail in a task may decrease our sense of ability
-Vicarious experiences are weaker than actual performances experiences, may confirm sense of inability
-Our sense of determination derived from our belief that like the model we will ultimately be successful
-Fail at task multiple times but continue to try
Verbal persuasion -To verbally persuade others or ourselves that they have skills to perform particular task – talk them into it
-Weaker strategy than performance accomplishment sand vicarious experience
-Can result in sustained an increased effort
-Strategy is predicated on sense of realism; promote unrealistic sense of competence who dot have necessary skills will result in failure
that decrease efficacy and faith in verbal persuasion
Emotional arousal -Aka. Physiological state - Source of efficacy expectation by which individual assess their emotional level and evaluate their capabilities
-Individuals evaluate their abilities to a certain extent, according to their assessment of their physiological state
-Ex. High level of emotion may be thought to be debilitating and predictive of failure
-Least powerful
-Optimal level to perform certain task will depend on nature of task and casual inferences made about arousal itself
-Arousal interpreted (+)/(-) depending on attributions about our physiological state
-Relaxation techniques can help modify arousal levels
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