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ch10 definitions

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PSYC 365
David Cox

Chapter 10 ~ Health-Compromising behaviours Addiction - State of being physically or psychologically dependent on a substance Withdrawal - Unpleasant symptoms people experience when they stop using a substance n which they have become dependent - When reduce or stop nicotine intake, will experience short term symptoms like reduce concentration, attention, memory with increase in anxiety, irritability, moodiness - If quit smoking odds of survival steadily improve so after 15-20 yrs odds similar to non-smoker Multidimensional - Combine nicotine replacement and psychological interventions = most effective approaches Nicotine-replacement - Technique to help stop smoking that provides some form of nicotine to replace the previously obtained through smoking therapy - Usually nicotine gum or nicotine patch used - Nicotine gum provides small amount of nicotine when chewed -23% cessation rate - Nicotine patch releases small continuous dose of nicotine into bodys system; patches with smaller and smaller doses are worn until person no longer addicted to nicotine 18% cessation rate - Drug bupropion combined with patch 35% cessation rate - Nicotine inhalers, nicotine nasal sprays Aversion therapies - Therapy that includes pairing behaviour that one is attempting to eliminate with some unpleasant stimulus so undesired behaviour will elicit negative sensations - Most common 1. Electric shock paired with smoking situations so when smoke they are shocked and made uncomfortable 2. Imagined aversive scenes directed to think of aversive scene that include beginning to smoke then something disgusting 3. Rapid smoking seldom used; place smoker in small enclosed room where they inhales form cigarette rapidly while concentrating on smoke and stinging burn in throat and unpleasant elements - Help in initial stages of quitting, but effect seldom long term Self-management - Strategies use dot help people overcome environmental conditions that perpetuate smoking strategies - Self-monitoring requires people record each cigarette they smoked, time o f day, where, who they were with, mood by self = decrease smoking - Stimulus control strategies focus on removing cues that lead person to smoke - Behavioural contracting establishing contract according to which person will be rewarded for fulfilling contract or punished for doing so(mostly deposit large sum of money so lose if contract broken) Binge drink - Consume five or more drinks at a sitting Low risk guidelines - 1997; state men should limit weekly alcohol intake to no more than 14 standard drinks and women to no more than 9 - Men likely to exceed this than women - Exceed = 18-24 years old and single; high income - No differences according to education or rural or not area - Aboriginal Canadian adolescents 6x risk than other Canadians for developing problems Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) - Alcohol used in beverages - Slows down nervous system, = may cause drowsiness, induce sleep, relieve pain - One drink most people feel relax, more feel outgoing and self confident then aggressiv
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