ch10 definitions

55 views3 pages
Published on 23 Jul 2011
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 365
Professor
Chapter 10 ~ Health-Compromising behaviours
Addiction -State of being physically or psychologically dependent on a substance
Withdrawal-Unpleasant symptoms people experience when they stop using a substance n which they have become dependent
-When reduce or stop nicotine intake, will experience short term symptoms like reduce concentration, attention, memory with increase in
anxiety, irritability, moodiness
-If quit smoking odds of survival steadily improve so after 15-20 yrs odds similar to non-smoker
Multidimensional
approaches
-Combine nicotine replacement and psychological interventions = most effective
Nicotine-replacement
therapy
-Technique to help stop smoking that provides some form of nicotine to replace the previously obtained through smoking
-Usually nicotine gum or nicotine patch used
-Nicotine gum – provides small amount of nicotine when chewed -23% cessation rate
-Nicotine patch – releases small continuous dose of nicotine into body’s system; patches with smaller and smaller doses are worn until person
no longer addicted to nicotine – 18% cessation rate
-Drug bupropion combined with patch – 35% cessation rate
-Nicotine inhalers, nicotine nasal sprays
Aversion therapies -Therapy that includes pairing behaviour that one is attempting to eliminate with some unpleasant stimulus so undesired behaviour will elicit
negative sensations
-Most common
1. Electric shock – paired with smoking situations so when smoke they are shocked and made uncomfortable
2. Imagined aversive scenes – directed to think of aversive scene that include beginning to smoke then something disgusting
3. Rapid smoking – seldom used; place smoker in small enclosed room where they inhales form cigarette rapidly while concentrating on
smoke and stinging burn in throat and unpleasant elements
-Help in initial stages of quitting, but effect seldom long term
Self-management
strategies
-Strategies use dot help people overcome environmental conditions that perpetuate smoking
-Self-monitoring – requires people record each cigarette they smoked, time o f day, where, who they were with, mood by self = decrease
smoking
-Stimulus control strategies focus on removing cues that lead person to smoke
-Behavioural contracting – establishing contract according to which person will be rewarded for fulfilling contract or punished for doing
so(mostly deposit large sum of money so lose if contract broken)
Binge drink -Consume five or more drinks at a sitting
Low risk guidelines -1997; state men should limit weekly alcohol intake to no more than 14 standard drinks and women to no more than 9
-Men likely to exceed this than women
-Exceed = 18-24 years old and single; high income
-No differences according to education or rural or not area
-Aboriginal Canadian adolescents 6x risk than other Canadians for developing problems
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) -Alcohol used in beverages
-Slows down nervous system, = may cause drowsiness, induce sleep, relieve pain
-One drink most people feel relax, more feel outgoing and self confident then aggressive, depressed, withdrawn, higher doses- thinking,
judgment, ability to estimate distance impaired, reaction time increase
-Blackouts, hangover (after drinking stop), death
-Hangoverscaused by mild alcohol withdrawal and may experienced 8-12 hours after heavy drinking; fatigue, headache, nausea, vomit,
shakiness
Blackout-Period of memory loss that occur while a person is drinking heavily
Funnelling -Putting funnel in someone’s mouth and pouring liquor into funnel
-Lethal because easily provides too much alcohol
Fetal alcohol spectrum
disorder (FASD)
-Name used to describe range of disabilities caused by prenatal exposures to alcohol; effects are permanent
-Most serious harm of alcohol
Disease model (of
problem drinking)
-Theory suggesting alcoholism is a disease resulting from physical properties of alcohol
-Closely linked to 12-step program of treatment
-Different types of alcoholism (Jellinek)
Gamma alcoholismloss of control once drinking beings
Delta alcoholisminability to abstain
Alcohol dependency
syndrome model
-Theory suggesting that at certain times and variety of reasons people do not exercise control over their drinking, and this leads to problem
drinking
-For syndrome to develop some factors are necessary salience of drink-seeking behaviour (drinking take priority over all aspects of life),
increased tolerance for alcohol
-Criticized for only considering physical properties of alcohol and neglect social and cognitive parts
Tension reduction
hypothesis
-Hypothesis maintaining people drink alcohol because fits tension- reducing properties
-Little support, but may lead people to avoid these situations or behaviours
Self-awareness model-Theory suggests that drinking inhibits use of normal complex information-processing strategies, such as memory and information acquisition,
making people less self-aware
-Decreased self awareness leads to decreased monitoring of behaviour disinhibition and decrease in self-criticism that occurs when people
drink
Alcohol myopia model -Drinker’s decreased ability to engage in insightful cognitive processing
-Decrease ability to process information outside narrow range (myopia)
-Help lower inhibition of impulsive response
-Characterized by having more excessively (friendly, aggressive), tendency to inflate self-evaluation, experience drunken relief, worry less, pay
less attention to worries
Social learning model-Theory when applied to drinking behaviour, proposes people drink because they experience positive reinforcement for doing so or because
they observe others drinking and model the behaviour
-Can explain why people begin to drink, why continue and drink excess
-Drinking behaviour is learned therefore can be unlearned
Unassisted change-People stop drinking without treatment; majority of them
-Support may be provided by people in informal manner
-But more likely to relapse
Stages of change model-Canada’s Drug Strategy adopted for guiding treatment processes and prevention goals for alcohol
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Document Summary

State of being physically or psychologically dependent on a substance. Unpleasant symptoms people experience when they stop using a substance n which they have become dependent. When reduce or stop nicotine intake, will experience short term symptoms like reduce concentration, attention, memory with increase in anxiety, irritability, moodiness. If quit smoking odds of survival steadily improve so after 15-20 yrs odds similar to non-smoker. Combine nicotine replacement and psychological interventions = most effective. Technique to help stop smoking that provides some form of nicotine to replace the previously obtained through smoking. Nicotine gum provides small amount of nicotine when chewed -23% cessation rate. Nicotine patch releases small continuous dose of nicotine into body"s system; patches with smaller and smaller doses are worn until person no longer addicted to nicotine 18% cessation rate. Drug bupropion combined with patch 35% cessation rate.