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ch 12 definitions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 365
Professor
David Cox

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Chapter 12 ~ Chronic and Life-Threatening Illnesses
Chronic condition -Condition that doesn’t go away or get better
-View their symptoms
Constant – discouragements and fear
Lessened or in remission – hope
Unpredictably erraticanger and frustration
Relentlessly progressiveexhaustion and sense of being overwhelmed
Acute illness -Illness with a defined beginning and end; most of us have acute
Serious conditions-Life threatening and often accompanied by severe symptoms
Oncology -Study and treatment of cancer; often specialize in particular site where cancer occurs in body
Sites of cancer-Types of cancer as defined by the location of the tumour
Metastasized-Spread (frequently used to denote spread of cancer); cells spread to other parts of body
-Harder to treat, can’t be localized, early detection = reduces likelihood of spread and increase survival
Approach-oriented
strategy
-Problem focused coping – problems faced and dealt with
Avoidance-oriented-Emotion-focused coping
Emotional-approach
coping
-Coping by facing emotional responses to a disease and dealing effectively with those responses
-Adopt approach orientation to emotion-focused coping = can be quite adaptive
Disfigurement-Potential physical result of cancer surgery that can have serious psychological consequences
-Ex. Cancer of head and neck surgery that changes facial shape, larynx = change voice, colorectal cancer = colon = bag to collect waste
materials + may lose bowel control (62 men and 41 women per 100000)
Adjuvant therapy -Therapy used in conjunction with other therapy
Alopecia-Hair loss, breast cancer chemotherapy = most difficult to deal with; might affect willingness to pursue treatment due to sense of identity
-Hair loss signals new identity- cancer patient
Anticipatory nausea -Nausea that’s felt before a chemotherapy treatment begins, explained in terms of classical conditioning and in terms of patient’s expectation s;
not uncommon
-Setting which treatment is administered, medical staff, smell of room become potential conditioned stimuli that bring anticipation of treatment
+ immune suppression can be another conditioned response that accompanies it
Antiemetic medication -Medication intended to reduce nausea and vomiting
-Usually inconjunction of chemotherapy, before or after chemo or radiation treatments; effective for some
-Used depends on nature of cancer and whether or not it could interfere with effectiveness of treatment
Family-oriented care -Comprehensive cancer care, family becomes the patient because for virtually every cancer patient there is a family and a collection of close
friends who are also affected by the disease
-Family member, friends lives change dramatically when member diagnosed; will be called upon to provide support = strain overwhelming
-Family’s ability to cope with cancer = directly related to extent to which they learned in past to be flexible in stressful situations
-Sometimes enough to just be there, medication can be good to help with anxiety and depression on short term, but not long term
-When we preoccupied with trying to say right thing = may become paralyzed = unhelpful
-Support providers should acknowledge person’s concerns and fears as being legitimate while trying to help person find effective ways of
dealing with them by not dwelling on intricacies of every word we say
-Reassurance of knowing support is out there if we need it = shown to reduce depression and encourage cancer patients to actually seek support
= decrease feelings of helplessness
Navigator-Often nurse, community health workers or social worker, who helps patients diagnosed with serious illnesses find their way through the
sometimes complicated world of hospitals and treatment
Social comparison -Monitoring of opinions and experiences of others to determine what’s right and wrong, normal and not, and subsequent use of this information
to help with decision making
Post-traumatic growth-Positive psychological or lifestyle outcome from an experience with a life-threatening illness
-Can be from changing/affirming one’s sense of spirituality, developing greater appreciation of life, see new possibilities, recognize personal
strength
Benefit finding -Attitude or technique often referred as finding the silver lining in the cloud which appears to aid in post-traumatic growth
Goodheart and Lansing
Steps of developing of
psychotherapeutic
treatment strategy for
chronically ill
1. Obtain sufficient medical information – from patient, but may burdensome for them, so communicate with medical staff (therapist need to)
2. Assess person’s psychological status and response to the illnessweigh demands of illness against coping resources of the patient, must
develop sense o person’s psychological state before illness
3.Integrate theoretical orientation – probe person ‘s feelings and unstated anxieties, must adopt psychodynamic orientation= address functional
quality of life issues= behavioural orientation might be adopted offer range of interventions then match it with most pressing needs
Therapeutic groups-Guided by professional trained in psychotherapy, emphasis shifting somewhat form provision of information to strategies to alleviate
depression and anxiety
-Reduced physical and emotional distress associated with radiation therapy
-Effective because 1. Members encouraged expressing emotions and confronting their concerns about death 2. Members build sense of group
cohesion, increasing sense o f social support 3. Learn to improve their communication skills 4. Receive relaxation training
-Consistent with family-oriented care, often provided to families of person with cancer
Hypoglycaemia-Low blood sugar; brings on adverse physical symptoms such as fatigue, can be accompanied by disorientation, confusion, negative mood 
negative consequences (other can see when they become hypoglycaemic then point it out and they become angry)
-Extreme cases: seizure, loss of consciousness
Myocardial ischemia-Lack of blood flow to heart muscle
-Treated by bypass surgery and angioplasty
Cardiac invalidism-Curtailing of activity levels far more than required by disease status because of anxiety related to possible subsequent attack
Cognitive reappraisal and
restructuring
-Therapy sometimes used with cardiac patients, which they learn to think differently about things that make them angry and to make
behavioural changes, such as learning to control their breathing, learn to control voice tone, etc.
-Anger = risk factor for CHD, especially when expressed as hostility one episode of intense angry could trigger fatal attack on severe
patients
-Taught to monitor their emotions so they can identify times when anger is a problem;
Acquired immune
deficiency syndrome
(AIDS)
-Disease that develops as result of HIV
-Body’s compromised immune system makes it susceptible to a host of other infections
-Symptoms: persistent fever, swelling of lymph glands on neck and under arms, frequent fatigue, diarrhea, sweating during sleep, yeast
infections in vagina, ears and tongue (symptoms not unique to HIV)
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