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ch 8 definitions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 365
Professor
David Cox

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Ch 8: Health Promotion
Health promotion -Strategies intended to maintain or improve health of large populations
-WHO: process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve their health
-Hallmarks focusing on prevention and self-care
-Many forms: programs, education, campaigns, political activism
-WHO mega country network attempts to affect health worldwide by involving world’s most populous
countries goals as promotion of healthy diets, physical activity, elimination of tobacco use
-Goal: save money of health expenditures(treating conditions that are preventable)
-Canada emphasis today
-Use this to educate people how to provide support (emotional, informational, practical)
-Programs can increase likelihood supports forthcoming and that it will be effective by ensuring it matches
peoples need
-Framework consolidate manageable set of goals
-Much is targeted at people’s thinking assume to change behaviour is to change beliefs relation to that
behaviour
-Programs must provide information regarding likelihood someone will suffer a health problem (vulnerability
information) and advice on how to reduce that likelihood (information regarding efficacy of preventive
behaviours)
Social determinants of
health
-Factors such as income, social support, education, working conditions, culture that have a significant effect
on health at population level
-Greater impact on populations’ health than medical science
Two-tiered system -To shorten waitlist by allowing those who are willing to pay to enter a separate system, taking them out of
general wait list and providing more timely care
-Those who can afford private option receive care they need
Self-care -Behaviours such as exercise, diet, voluntary screening, regular medical checkups that one engages in to
promote one’s health
Pap smear/pap test -Test done to screen for cervical cancer
-Most effective - accurate early detection strategy that significantly reduce mortality rates
-Declined by 50% since introduction
-Older women don’t receive more than younger women
Mutual aid -Responsibility to family, friends, loved ones, and even society as a whole when it comes to health and safety
-Healthy to have people around
-Mortality lower in close knit communities or with high level of social integration
-Social support related to other elements of Canada’s health promotion framework “reducing inequities”
(older people that’s low income less support)
-Health promotion main job here : campaigns must encourage creation of support groups and attendance at
them
Practical support -Aka. Tangible support; Help with demands of daily living, such as getting meals and rides to doctor
Informational support -Provision of information that might include treatment options, typical recovery times, etc.
Emotional support -Support provided by people who take the time to understand our fears and frustrations, who help calm us
during anxious times, who help bring our moods up, or distract us from our worries
Health belief model -Model that analyzes health behaviour n termed of belief that a health threat exists and belief that given
course of action will affect the threat
Theory of reasoned action -Theory positing that behaviour is preceded by intention and that our intention is influenced by beliefs about
the behaviour and subjective norms
Theory of planned
behaviour
-Theory positing that behaviour is preceded by intention and that our intention is influenced not only by
subjective norms and beliefs about the efficacy of the behaviour, but also by belief that one is actually
capable of performing the behaviour
Persuasion -Attempt to change people’s attitudes and beliefs
Attitude -Cognition in which a person evaluates some object or idea
-Good/bad; like, dislike
Health advertising -Health promotion programs that tries to change attitudes by persuading people that low fat diets are good
and they should like them
Health belief -Something we think to be true concerning our health
Fear appeals -Attempt to change people’s behaviour by presenting frightening accounts of what could happen to them if
they continue a given behaviour or if they don’t adopt a behaviour
-Considerable theoretical support for assumption
-Designed to intensify people’s beliefs regarding threat and extent to which they are vulnerable (theory of
planned behaviour)
-Threat perception belief that a threat is real and that we are vulnerable to it
-Drive-reduction theory before theory of planned behaviour
Drive-reduction theory -Hovland et al. to explain fear appeals
-Suggest we are driven to reduce the tension brought about by deprivation or other negative states
-Works because we are driven to reduce fear and when successful the behaviour we use to reduce fear is
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