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Psyc 365 Ch 10 Health Compromising Behaviours

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PSYC 365
David Cox

Psyc 365 Ch 10 – Health Compromising Behaviours Substance Abuse - Smoking o #1 preventable cause of death in Canada o Overall rates dropping o Rates higher in low SES, aboriginal population (highest rate), non-immigrants o Males smoke more o Why do people smoke?  Usually starts in teens  More likely to smoke if their friends smoke or if attending a school where older students smoke  Image (smoking equated with being attractive)  Linked to smoking in movies o Becoming a smoker  Factors:  Parental modeling  Peer influence  Cigarette advertising  Personal characteristics (risk taker, low self esteem)  Reasons:  Positive-affect smoker o A smoker who smokes to attain positive effect (stimulation, relaxation, gratification)  Negative- affect smoker o Smoker who smokes to reduce negative affect, such as anxiety, distress, fear, or guilt  Habitual smoker o Smokers who smoke without awareness of why they are doing so  Addictive smoker o Smokers who develop a psychological dependence on smoking and are keenly aware when they are not smoking  It is important to note different reasons as then quitting strategies will be different as well o Health consequences  Reduced life expectancy  Risk of:  Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease  Cancer  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS)  Second-hand smoke. Breathing it is called passive smoking o Quitting Smoking  Half of all people attempt to quit each year. 12% of 15-19 year olds succeed  Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, and moodiness  Reasons for quitting involve own future health (30%), own present health (20%), change of lifestyle (16%)  Ways to quit  By oneself o Most relapses occur in the first 3 months of quitting o Almost half of quitters attempt it on their own  Nicotine-replacement therapy o Stop-smoking technique that provides some form of nicotine to replace that previously obtained through smoking  Aversion therapy o Therapy that includes pairing the behaviour that one is attempting to eliminate with some unpleasant stimulus so that the undesired behaviour will elicit negative sensations o Electric shock, aversive scenes (think of a disgusting scene that starts with smoking), rapid smoking (make them smoke a lot in a tiny room until it hurts)  Self management strategies o Strategies used to help people overcome the envicronmental conditions that perpetuate smoking o Self-monitoring requires that people record each cigarette they smoke, time of day and location, who they were with and their mood o Stimulus control focus on removing cues that lead a person to smoke o Behavioural contracting involves establishing a contract, according to which a person will be rewarded for fulfilling the contract or punished for failing to do so o most commonly used strategy is to reduce number of cigarettes per day Alcohol Use - 53% of all Canadians drink alcohol at least once a day - Higher SES – more frequent drinking - Rate of teen drinking and binge drinking increasing - Ethanol in beverages is a depressant - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) o The name used to describe the range of disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol; these effects are permanent - Possible positive effects of alcohol (lowest mortality is with 1 to 2 drinks daily) - Explaining Drinking Behaviour o Disease model (of problem drinking)  Theory suggesting that alcoholism is a disease resulting from the physical properties of alcohol  Different kinds of alcoholism  Gamma alcoholism o Loss of control once drinking begins  Delta alcoholism o Inability to abstain from alcohol o Alcohol dependency syndrome model  Theory suggesting that for a variety of reasons people do not exercise control over their drinking and this leads to problem drinking.  Factors include salience of drink-seeking behaviour, increased tolerance for alcohol  Criticized because of its emphasis on physical properties of alcohol and neglect of cognitive and social learning aspects o Tension reduction hypothesis  Hypothesis that people drink alcohol because of its tension-reducing properties  Little empirical support o Self-awareness model  Theory that drinking makes people less self-aware because of inhibiting use of complex information processing strategies such as memory and info acquisition  People may consume alcohol to avoid self-awareness and monitoring o Alcohol myopia  A drinker’s decreased ability to engage in insightful cognitive processing outside of a narrow range  Lowers inhibition of impulsive responses  Less worries o Social learning model  People drink because they experience positive reinforcement for doing so or because they observe others drinking and model the behaviour  Explains why people begin to drink, why they continue in moderation or in excess - Prevention and Treatment of alcohol abuse o Policies such as age restrictions and public consumption o Health promotion and education o Refusal skills o Drinking and driving counts for 35% of fatally injured drivers  Pre-contemplation  Contemplation  Preparation  Action  Maintenance  Relapse Illicit Drug Use - Relatively few people die from effects - But use of illicit drugs higher than ever - Cannabis o Only dangerous in super high doses - Hallucinogens o Negative long term consequences. o Increased BP, HR, temp, impaired motor skills and coordination. Larger doses can lead
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