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Final

Psyc 379 Week 7 Sexual Violence Full Notes - Final Exam Review

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 379
Professor
Jennifer Storey
Semester
Fall

Description
Psyc 379 Week 7 – Sexual Violence  Describe the role of coercion and consent in sexual offending. o Rape is minority of sexual offenses o Psychological Coercion  Threat or promise of social or emotional harm or gain  Usually effective with younger (than 16) victims  Is not alone a case for rape with adults  Assent vs Consent  Assent means agreeing but not knowing what you are agreeing to  Consent means agreeing voluntarily knowing risks and benefits o Physical Coercion  Exhibitionism Voyeurism Sexual touching, etc  Most offenses involve light physical coercion  Describe paraphilia as well as its assessment and its relationship with sexual offending. o sexual arousal to inappropriate stimuli o It is a disorder of sexual appetite, not the degree or intensity o Paraphilias are fairly stable over time. Although it is normal for all people to have different sexual interests for shorter periods of time over their lifetime. Paraphilias typically start around puberty and persists into adulthood o Paraphilia must cause distress, dysfunction, and disability (social alienation) o Not much research in its predictiveness of sexual violence o paraphilia is an important risk factor for future sexual violence but only for certain features of the disorder and for individuals with a known history of sexual violence. o  Describe relationship and reporting issues related to sexual violence. o People are more likely to report violence when:  It is perpetrated by a stranger. Victims may hesitate to report violence by a person known to them, because they do not want to harm them (e.g., send them to prison).  There are serious injuries or weapons involved, because they see the potential for someone to be seriously injured.  The violence occurs multiple times. In this case, they may feel that they have tried but can no longer fix the problem themselves. o However most rape is by those known to victims, in fact usually they are family members/close to the victim o Even rapist might not see it as rape Overall, the rate of sexual recidivism (or re-offence) is generally found to be between 10 and 15 percent five years after release from prison. Reading 1. Sexual Deviance and the Law Legal Relevance of sexual deviance - Does the law recognize sexual deviance as a form of mental disorder? o Definitions in law are narrower than in mental health, usually describing mental disorder as something internal, stable, and involuntary o Sexual Deviance meet this criteria - Can Sexual Deviance cause cognitive impairment o No. Ppl with SD have the capacity to understand that their thoughts/actions are immoral/illegal by society’s standards - Can SD cause volitional impairment o Yes. Affects behavioural motivation or regulation o According to the law what is uncertain is the nature and severity of the volitional impairment o Responses in sentencing can be retributive or rehabilitative - So SD is seen as not leading to cognitive impairment but with the possibility of inducing volitional impairment. Simple diagnosis of SD is not enough for assuming volitional impairment. This must be demonstrated. This way the law avoids discriminating (all persons who have SD have volitional impairment) - Link btw SD diagnosis and volitional impairment is sometimes referred to as the causal nexus. Diagnosis of Sexual Deviance - Standard 1: Assessments of SD should be comprehensive o Many different forms of sexual deviance, mental health pros should attempt a direct and comprehensive gathering of info on all normal and abnormal thoughts, urges, fantasies, etc. o A corollary is that assessments should avoid over-focusing on convictions for sexual offenses. Sexual offenses are neither necessary nor sufficient for a diagnosis of sexual deviance o Many people with SD never act on their urges o Therefore sexual violence can be a caused by many other factors - Standard 2: Assessments of SD should evaluate its course o Isolated symptoms are not enough for a diagnosis. DSM IV requires 6 months, and in most cases SD is seen starting in adolescence and continuing into late adulthood o So mental health pros should evaluate the course of each symptom of SD that has been present at any time o Corollary is that assessments should avoid assuming that, once diagnosed, the disorder is always present. - Standard 3: assessments of SD should be multi-method o Interviews, interviews with informants, polygraphic interviews, medical or physiological testing, and behavioural observations
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