Describe and discuss the definitions, types, and models of violence
Violence definition includes the use OR INTENDED USE or threat of use of power (implying
the use of authority) and/or force to cause physical, psychological injury, death, maldevelopment
or deprivation. (therefore also includes neglect)
Self-directed: suicidal behaviour (including suicidal thoughts and attempts) and self-abuse
Interpersonal: family and intimate partner violence: largely btw family members and intimate
partners – usually in the home. OR community violence: violence btw individuals who are
unrelated and who may or may not know each other - usually outside of home
Collective: social, political, and economic violence. Includes terrorism, crimes of hate by
organized groups, and mob violence.
Measured mostly by mortality data. (availability and quality of data)
Individual – seeks to identify biological and personal history factors that an individual brings to
behaviour – personality, socioeconomic status, substance abuse, etc
Relationship – proximal social relationships that increase risk for violent victimization and
perpetration of violence. Ie. Partner and child maltreatment
Community – community contexts. High residential mobility, heterogeneity, high population
Societal – factors that create an acceptable climate for violence, reduce inhibitions against
violence, and create and sustain gaps between different segments of society. Cultural norms,
attitudes, parental rights priority, male dominance, police use of excessive force
Types of prevention:
Primary : prevention before it starts Secondary: immediate responses to violence
Tertiary: long term aftercare
Types of interventions:
Universal: groups or general population without regard to individual risk
Selected: those considered at high risk
Indicated: those already demonstrated violent behaviour
ROOTS OF VIOLENCE SLIDES:
Humans are closest living ancestors to chimps – violent.
Socialization is important – children are the most violent humans
Anuual rate of violence about 28/100k
- Nature of contact
o Physical, sexual, threats, harassments, weapons
- Intent of perpetrator
o Maybe just reckless, or yes intent, no action, or intent for lesser action
- Perception of victim
o Violent? Consent?
- Past info useless, and individuals are different
o Nature of behaviour, frequency, duration, the seriousness, the imminence
o What is the setting for perp? Social status, money, etc
o Driven by question trying to answer. Is this person fit for trial? Or probation
o Must not go by averages
o In terms of info collected and considered. Collect info about past, present, future Management
o Strategies must be put in place. (surveillance, treatment, prohibitions)
o Must be related to risk factors relevant to case. Relative to needs of offender
- Describe why and how people decide to engage in violence.
- Describe issues around the reporting of crime
CSI Crime Severity Index – seriousness of crimes. Complimentary to crime rates. Each crime is
assigned a weight derived by sentences from criminal courts.
Violent crime has been going down but to a lesser extent than overall crime. West higher CSI
National homicide rate stable over past decade
Only 1 in 10 sexual assaults reported to police: reasons for undercount include incident not being
important enough, or dealt with privately
Most Canadians believe that crime was lower in their neighbourhood than elsewhere in Canada.
majority of Canadians were satisfied with police.
Positive attitudes toward the police generally increased with age
Crime stats are from 3 main methods: administrative data (released by official institutions),
surveys, and ethnographic data.
They are often controversial:
(a)The study of crime itself is often controversial.
(b)What is defined as a „crime‟ is a social construction and not an empirical fact.
(c)There is not always consensus on how to collect crime statistics.
(d)There is no one data source that can address all the issues raised in the study of crime. the act of committing a crime can result in the loss of liberty and in some cases the loss of life.
Understandably, most people do not admit to committing crime. As a consequence detection of
crime is dependent on victims reporting such activities to the police, and the police successfully
apprehending the suspects. Police make decisions about whether to proceed with charges, then
prosecutors make decisions about whether to continue with the charge and if so which charges
they will pursue. Finally, the courts then make a determination as to guilt or innocence.
Somewhere along the line, something could happen to affect the numbers
White-collar crime is rarely recorded or dealt with under criminal law (Sutherland 1949).
To address the issue of under-reporting of crime to police, crime victim surveys are routinely
undertaken in many countries. Individuals within households are randomly selected and asked
about their experience of crime and victimization. However: definition of legal crime may be
different than in survey, different groups report different amounts/types of crimes: those with
higher levels of education are more likely to report assault, while women are less likely to report
rape/domestic violence, affecting the reliability of surveys. Memory failure is a problem with
respondents being more likely to recall incidents where the offender was not known to them than
where the offender was known or related. Methodological problems include who should be
interviewed in the household and the phrasing and order of questions
In order to tackle the problem of small sample size in self report data we could focus on specific
groups, but that damages generalizability
In practice the self-report methodology asks people to incriminate themselves. This poses real
dilemmas for ethics committees.
Violence in Canada Slides
- People are not BORN with proneness violence
- Choice, not random
- It is not unpredictable, or uncontrollable – therefore manageable
- Exceptions: these might be random:
o Mental disorders
o Violence after loss of consciousness
Potential Benefits of Violence
- Financial gain, control, sexual gratification, communication (of anger,etc), coercion,
revenge, justice, enjoyment, excitement, dispute resolution, self-defense, Purposeful Violence (thought process)
- Violence must enter thought as an option
- Most people would push thought out of head
- Once it has not been pushed out, cost/gain will be assessed
Describe the goals and limitations of violence risk assessment.
Violence risk assessment is the process of evaluating individuals to characterize the risk they will
commit acts of violence and to develop interventions to manage that risk.
The ultimate goal is violence prevention. To get there: - should yield consistent results and be
replicable. - It should be prescriptive: it should identify, evaluate, and prioritize mental health,
social service and criminal justice interventions that could be used to manage patient‟s violence
risk. – Finally, it should be transparent. This will give change for scrutiny.
Focus on negative characteristics and features. Rather than personal strengths and positives, or
buffer factors. Positivity must be taken into account to be