REM100 Review.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Resource & Environmtl Mgmt
REM 100

REM100 Review Defining Global Change What makes a problem global?  Large Scale (effects a wide range of people)  Can’t be solved by one country  The solution challenges current conflicts in the world  Challenges global insitutions What drives global change?  Criteria for a global problem:  Serious to be recognized as a major problem  The problem is constant  Needs help from other countries  Creates compassion  Problem effects other problems  **Changing paradigms, demographic transition, and great debate Manifestations of global distress  Mushroom cloud icon of past generations pre 1945  Spreading of DDT; poisoning the planet 50s-60s  Human population over load driving down the carrying capacity of the earth  Global warming Population and the demographic change  The population boom 2 billion in 39’/3.5b in 68’/ 6.5-7b now  High populations created a bad allocation of resources  ***Demographic transition 1. Birth rates and death rates change with some overall increase 2. Death rates decline and birth rates stay high aka population grows 3. Birth rate slows to close the replacement levels and population slow History of Global Change and Environmental Philosophies Global Change  Risk = Consequence x Probability (if either high then the risk is great) The Great Transformation  ***Transformation of the biosphere from its natural state by human action  During transformation biosphere was altered by human activities  Massive social economic change (Religionscience/feudaldemocracy/rural urban)  Although population has increased it is much more profound in less developed countries whereas more developed countries growth is steady Utopian Philosophies  Hunter gatherer (pre -10,000) -Conflicts between societies -Only supported low populations  ***Agrarian Societies (-10,000-1750) -Simplified the natural ecosystems (smaller number of domesticated species) -Invention of agriculture/herding increased population densities -Agriculture surplus led to specialization, political organization, and urban development -Over exploitation sometimes collapsed societies (Mayans) Agrarian societies were sustainable. -Farming tech limited degradation -Population density was low -Urban population slowed due to disease and epidemics -Migration was an option, which gave time for land to refurbish  Industrial Rev (1860-present) -Labor intensive -Wealth form colonies provided capital and raw materials -Diet improvement, sanitation, and life expectancy increase Deep Ecology  Humankind is a important part of the earth  Harmony with nature  Limited Resources  Recycling  ***The most eco centric environmental philosophy is deep ecology Anthropocentrism  The environment should be protected Ecocentrism  Non human nature has the right to exist – does not depend on humans to give it value Dominate Social Paradigm and shift (sustainable development)  The most widely held set of beliefs in terms of the self and environment  Societies dominant belief structure  Industrial growth paradigm (market economy with increasing material consumption  Paradigm Shift: shift in one or more of its institutions  Examples of paradigm shifts (abolishment of slavery/woman equality)  Process of paradigm shifts: - Wholesale shifts take form of revolutions - Accepting gradual social change through steady change - Substantial change requires (20-100 years)  **Currently in a dominant social paradigm accepting capitalism, individualism, economic growth The Great Debate Techno-optimist  Technology exists so we can produce quantities of resources that are made by nature  there is enough matter/energy on the earth  the future will fix out problems  techno-pessimist  Planning is required because we don’t know everything therefore we must keep options open  We need to do something  Predictions help ensure that they do not come true     The limits to growth  Population growth  Resource fall  Decrease in food per capita  Starvation population decline Costanza’s four visions  Star Trek: Fusion energy becomes practical solving many economic environmental problems  Mad Max: Oil production declines and no affordable alternative emerges. Financial markets collapse and governments weaken  Ecotopia: Tax reforms favor ecologically beneficent industries and punish polluters and resource depletes  Big Government: Governments sanction companies that fail to pursue public interests. Fusion energy is slow to develop due to strict safety standards. I=PAT (Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology) Links between population growth and environmental degradation  Larger the population growth the faster environmental degradation  As countries become richer they may take the shape of consumption and waste like western societies  Open access often leads to misuse and degradation Land use change  Poor consume too little to have a global environment impact Links between poverty, technology, and environmental degradation technology and induced innovation  Developed countries (improved healthcare so death rate decline matches falling birth rates)  Developing countries (Life expectancy increasing, more children surviving, birth rates slowing, still varies)  Poverty is a cause for environmental change  As poor become richer they will use more Role of Property Rights and Institutions Property rights  Ownership: property rights and resource allocation  Natural resources cannot be owned like houses and land because they are a common pool  Markets do not maximize social welfare  5 kinds of ownership  Tragedy of the commons  2 perspectives to manage common pools Forms of property rights: private, state, common property, open access  Private: (Owned by individuals, includes land and objects, owner has specific rights)  State: (Government owned, Access has certain rule, may be sold for revenue or given away for subsidies)  Common Property: (owned by a group of ppl, members control access, group decisions)  Open Access: (May be owned by state but ownership isn’t enforced) Open access and tragedy of the commons  Common land open to all  Individual better off putting extra animals into graze  Commons may be worse off  Eventually brings ruin to all Potential Remedies  Collective action (consequences)  Coercion (gov’t intervention)  Open Access often leads to misuse and degradation Global Environmental Problems – Underlying Causes Economic perspective: market failures  When private means contradict the social ends of an efficient allocation of resources  3 types of market failure (open access, public good or bad, externality (spillover)  All associated with an environmental problem in one way Global/Transboundary externalities  A negative externality arises when cost of production/consumption are experienced by people other than producers or consumers  No compensation  Consumer not pay full cost to society due to price being to low and goods being over producedmarket failure  Global pollution problem like acid rain from cars and power plants (2 issues: externality and Transboundary)  Too many polluting goods leads to excessive resource use/damage Commons and open access  Global commons are the natural resources that belong to all human kind rather than one group  Air, ocean, forestry, and land are all effected by open access  Global resources will tend to be over harvested or depleted Public goods and free riders  good or service is consumed by everyone which no one can be excluded  public goods are non depleatable  Environment public goods examples include ozone layer protection/biodiversity  A free ride is someone benefitting from a good or service without paying for it  Public bad is a good that produces social undesirable results (pollution, deforestation) Perverse subsidies  A subsidy is a payment by the gov’t to increase public welfare  Perverse if its net effect is to reduce public welfare such as fishing or agriculture  They are perverse because they reduce opportunities for other forms of spending GDP (Consumption + Investment +Government +Net Exports)  Measures economic activity  Based on sales of goods and services  Doesn’t capture (external costs/pollution, unpaid labor)  Thing that contribute to GDP but doesn’t increase welfare (crime and disaster) GNP  product is the market value of all products and services produced by property and labor supplied by residents of a country in one year Sustainable Development What is sustainable development: six concepts of sustainability 1. Utility/Welfare does not decline over time 2. Resources managed to maintain production for the future 3. Renewable resources/services managed for sustainable yield 4. Natural capital doesn’t decline over time 5. Ecosystems stability maintained above minimum levels 6. Sustainable development builds capacity and consensus Weak sustainability and strong sustainability  Weak sustainability (perfect sustainability, so can pass on constant amount of total capital  Strong Sustainability (stong natural capital must be passed on intact, irreversible changes must avoided Three groups of strategies for achieving sustainable development  Information based (Economics-valuing environment, green accounting)  Uncertainty based (Ecology-precautionary approach, adaptive management)  Cooperation/Negotiation based (Social-international environment agreements) Steady State Economy  Balances gain and losses and capital, maintains capital  Constant stocks of people and artifacts  Sufficient by low rates of maintenance  Lowest feasable flows of matter and energy from the first stage of production to the last stage of consumption  Birth rates = death rates  Stable population and stale consumption that remain at or below carry capacity Managing global change (3) Cooperation and negotiation-based strategies  There is no world gov’t  Fixing problems require full cooperation (incentives/global interest)  Cooperation happens when a problem effects more than one state  Inter linkage of global ecosystem  Free rider problem can slow basis of cooperation  Primary tool IEAs  Transboundary environmental management and resource use impacts where there are market failures International environmental actors 1. Nation States  Self interest and domestic concern  Jealously governed sovereign rights  Determined By: - Economics interests (exports) - Class interests (wealthy land owners) - Bureaucratic interests (military) - Environmental interests, if no economic stake (whaling vs climate) 2. International Organizations (IOs)  Governs bodies made up of member state reps  Influence environmental issues by: - Setting agenda for global action (UNEP) - Influence negotiations - Develop codes of conduct - Lending for environment purposes (World Bank) 3. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)  Play important role due to knowledge, global focus on large nationals  No participation from gov’t, not subject to International Law  Affect environmental issues by: - Influencing international agenda - Lobbying gov’t to change - Proposing texts for international conventions - Monitoring implementation 4. Multinational Corporations  Manages production/services more than one country  Generally opposed to international enviro regulation  May influence issues by: -Shaping them to suit purposes -Persuading gov’t for particular positions Cooperative and non- cooperative behavior  No legislation means states must cooperate  International law is the basis form cooperation and solving problems International environmental agreements (IEAs)  IEAs are the product of cooperation 
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