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Simon Fraser University
Resource & Environmtl Mgmt
REM 100
Karen Ruckman

Global Change Development: Environment and Development: - Factors that led to awareness:  Pollution  Extraction of natural resources  Env deterioration: a) Desertification b) Soil erosion c) Deforestation - Includes economic and social changed caused by economic growth - i.e. Industrialization help poor // harm env - Effects on Env:  AirSmog, Acid Rain, Ozone Depletion, Airborne Lead  Climate↗CO ,2↗Temp  WaterFreshwater +Marine pollution  LandSolid/toxic wastes, deforestation - Sustainable Development:  Meet needs of present w/o compromising ability of future generation to meet their own needs  Env sustainable society: • Meet basic resource needs w/o depletion + degrading natural capitals - Growth of Environmentalism 1960 • Visible pollution of atmosphere • Pollution of waterways • Devastation of bird population by pesticides • Threatened extinction of the great whales - Environmental Kuznet Curve: • Higher income, higher pollution • Lower income, lower pollution Approaches to Natural Resource Management Barry Commoner’s 4 Law of Ecology: 1. Everything is connected to everything else 2. Everything must go somewhere 3. Nature knows best 4. No such thing as free lunch - Exploitation  Resource depletion  Unlimited supply  Nature is to serve humans - Preservation  Resources preserved +Protected - Utilitarian  Careful management of renewable resources  Harvest @ rate which they can be replenished - Ecological Sustainable  Protect ENTIRE ecosystem to sustain  Knowledge of interrelationship b/w all species and env. Basic Resource: - Material resources of use to indiv. + society - Flows of energy that can be used - Attributes of env that contribute something of value Renewable Non-renewable Production Rate ≥ Consumption Rate Consumption Rate> Production Rate - Fossil Fuel - Soil - Non-metallic minerals - Water - Metals - Ecosystem - Renewable Energies - Resource Cycle:  Extraction []/PurificationUse for goods production ConsumptionReuse/RecycleDesignation of goods/ by-products as waste Waste disposalWaste assimilation into env. Great Transformation: - Modes of Adaption:  Society’s livelihoods, social + economic organization or production system  Determines population size that can be supported within physical limits of env. Hunter-Gatherer Agrarian Industrial - Alters environment for utility - Surplus specialization, - Labor-intensive, machine- political org, development of based - Evidence of conflict b/w urban centre society - Wealth from colonies - Simplification of natural provide capital and raw - Driven species to extinction ecosystem materials - Low pop. density - Farming methods limit - Improvement in diet, degradation sanitation, healthcare - ↗Food availability, ↗pop // lots - Mechanization, fertilization unemployed boost agricultural production Summary: - Population ↗ - Unprecedented wealth and material consumption Development of Transportation: - Farmer’s access to distant, city markets - Improved nutrition - More labour to make, more people to buy - Positive feedback ↗ welfare Costanza’s Four Vision: Optimists Right Skeptics Right Tech Star Trek Mad Max Optimists Default tech optimist vision Technological Skeptic Nightmare - Technology will solve the - Social + physical infrastructure problems deteriorating w/ natural env. - Biggest problem are the - ≈Wall Street Crash; 99% and the 1% “leisure thinkers” - Gov. too weak maintain armies - Entire breakdown of country Tech Big Government Ecotopia Skeptic Public Interest trumps Private Low consumption sustainable vision enterprise - Human activities are eco-sustainable - Government policies - Distribute resource and property stabilised global human pop. this rights stabilised other species pop. - Efficiently allocate resources - Gov. will be solution to - Eco-tax on imports, reduced tax on problem low/middle incomes - To travel virtually Measuring Prosperity: GDP Consumption + Investment + Govt. Spending + (Export-Import) - Based on final sale price of goods & services Captured Not Captured - Crime - External costs (Pollution) - Disasters - Voluntary + Unpaid labour - Disease - Public goods - Pollution abatement - Natural Capitals - Sea defenses - Env. Effects - Noise barriers HDI Components: - Life expectancy - Adult literacy rate - Child attendance in school - Adjusted income per person Measures longevity, knowledge and standard of living GPI Components: - Subtracts public bads, expenditures, draw-downs f natural capitals - Aims to reflect more economic welfare - Accounts usage/ degradation of resources Ecological Footprint: - Tracks human competing demands on biosphere by comparing human demand vs. regenerative capacity Dominant Social Paradigm: - Society’s dominant beliefs, values, ideals - Guides thoughts of roles in society - Organizes perception and interpretation of world f(x) - Provides Social Stability - Secures compliance/ acceptance behind ruling elite - Shapes economy, political systems, media…. Paradigm Shift: 1. Scientific/ other understanding progress 2. Doubts + inconsistencies raised 3. DSP No support 4. New social paradigm takes over Changed via. Violent social upheaval Growth Paradigm Cracks:  Growth Dilemma • Unlimited growth vs. Biophysical limits  Control Dilemma • Free trade vs. Protectionism  Work Roles • Leisure vs. Longer working hours Deep Ecology: Earth as an entity - Spaceship Earth • Earth as a “system” • In which earth has become a single spaceship w/o unlimited reservoirs of anything, either for extraction of pollution - Gaia Hypothesis • A complex entitiy involving the Earth’s biosphere, atmosphere, ocean and soil: the totality constituting a feedback system which seeks an optimal physical and chemical env for life - Silent Spring • DDT: Nerve poison sprayed on crops to control insects/malaria a) Impacted birds, mammals and humans b) Banned 1973 Deep Ecology Dominant World View - Harmony w/ nature - Dominance over nature - All nature has intrinsic worth - Environment= resource & species equal
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