REM 100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cover Crop, Crop Residue, Osmosis

219 views25 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

REM course final review notes
What is a global issue?
-the problem has global or large scale regional effects
-cannot be solved by one country alone
-its solution challenges the status quo in world order (it challenges what a
common beleif and what people are used to)
-challenges global institutions
-exposes the inter-dependence between countries and regions
3 types of ways prosperity is measured
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GPI: Gross Product Index → more accurately reflect economic welfare
HDI: Human development Index → Life expectancy, Adult literacy rate, Proportion of
children attending school, Adjusted per capita income
GDP = Consumption + investment + government spending + (export – import)
What is not captured by the GDP:
-External costs (from pollution)
-Voluntary and unpaid labour
-Public goods
-Drawn down on natural capital
-Environmental effects
Things that contribute to GDP but do not increase welfare:
-Crime
-Natural/man-made disasters
-pollution clean up
-other public “bads” –disease, war
Carry capacity: the maximum population that can be sustained at the minimum standard
of living necessary for survival.
Growth rate equation: Td = 70/r
r = annual growth rate = births - deaths
4 laws of ecology:
-everything is connected to everything
-everything must go somewhere
-nature knows best
-there’s no such things as free lunch
hunter gatherer → agrarian → industrial
Hunter-gatherer societies alter environment to increase utility
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 25 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
4 main approaches towards resource use:
1. Exploitation approach
-results in resource depletion
-thinks resource exists in unlimited supply
-nature is here to serve humans
2. preservation approach
-resources preserved, set aside, protected
3. utilitarian approach
-Careful management of renewable resources for human
consumption
-Protect resources by harvesting them at a rate at which they
can be replenished
-“sustainable yield” of a single species within a system
4. ecological sustainable approach
-Protect the entire ecosystem to sustain renewable resources (think of the
environment before self)
-knowledge of interrelationships between all species and environment
Environmental problems: Risk = consequence X probability
James lovelockGAIA → earth is a self-regulating complex system involving the
biosphere, the atmosphere, hydrosphere and pedosphere
Rachel CarsonDDT → was banned in the U.S(1972), Canada (partial ban 1969/1970,
full ban 1985), UK(1984) and other countries
Natural Resources:
Non-renewable: finite resource. Rate of production is much slower than rate at
which resource is consumed
–Fossil fuels, Nonmetallic minerals
Renewable: rate of production of resource is same or faster than rate of
consumption.
-continue use depends on proper management
• Soil, “land” products (forests)
• Water
• Ecosystems
• Renewable energies
Waste: “Something which the owner no longer wants at a given place or time and which
has no current or perceived market value”
Sink: “part of the environment used for the disposal of valueless material”
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 25 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Classification of Waste:
-Material resources that have been extracted from the environment, now deemed
of no further use to individuals and society
-Flows of energy resulting from human activities which it is decided are not worth
using
–(e.g. waste heat from power stations)
Attributes of the environment that are not valued
The great transformation:
-Massive social economic re-organization of western societies over the last 50
years
-Unprecedented wealth and consumption
-Wealth not shared equally
-Population increased
limits to growth model
-believes: consumption increase, human welfare increase
-Societal growth cannot be sustained
-Population growth→Resources fall→decreased food per capita
→Reduced industrial output→Starvation, population decline
steady state model
techno pessimist model
techno optimist model
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 25 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class