REM 350 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Energy Carrier, Market Failure, Bioproducts

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Lecture 1. Introduction and Key Concepts
Thought Problem
In the late 1980s China opened its economy.
At the same time, world leaders committed to reducing greenhouse gases - mostly CO2 - from
developed countries.
China’s economy and CO2 have grown annually at about 10%.
If China had frozen its CO2 at its 1990 level, what would have been its annual GDP growth 1990-2010?
-0%: 0% of growth in GDP is possible due to no CO2 emission. CO2 is highly and closely
related to GDP growth since CO2, or use of fossil fuel is closely related to the production of
almost anything.
-10%: GDP growth of 10% is possible because of many alternative energy sources such as
solar, hydro, geothermal and etc. With this alternative, China can generate production and
with more technological improvements, production can grow even more which in turn, GDP
growth as well.
India is poorer than China. It also has lower CO2 emissions.
Its economy is starting to grow fast - 4-6%.
Must it follow China’s CO2/ GDP path in order to have 8-10% annual economic growth?
-Same CO2/GDP: India, just like China has no other option but to choose fossil fuels as their
primary energy source for production, which will eventually generate the same amount of
CO2 emission.
-1/3 CO2/GDP: Production not only relies on the use of fossil fuel but also the labour of many
people. India can generate much production relying on the labor since their population is
high.
Energy
-Ability to do work
-1 joule = 1 newton - metre
-Units: joule, kwh, btu, calorie
-내가 악셀을 밟음으로서 차가 앞으로 가는것
Power
-Measure of how fast energy can be delivered
-Power = energy/time
-1 watt = 1 joule/ 1 second
-Units: watt, btus per hour, horsepower
-내가 악셀을 밟을수록 파워가 가해져서 차가 더 빨리가는것
First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation Law)
-Energy or matter can be neither created nor destroyed
-Energy inputs must equal energy outputs for any transformation process
-How much energy input is being used to turn the chain wheel on the chain saw (focus on
device)
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy Law)
-Isolated system, entropy increases with every transformation
-Energy: increased entropy means decreased quality of energy (decreased energy exergy)
-We do not consume energy (1st law), but rather energy exergy (2nd law)
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-How much energy is needed to turn the chain wheel at enough speed which will make chain
saw possible to cut the butter (focused on task)
System
-Isolated system: does not exchange energy or materials with outside of itself
-Open System: exchanges energy and materials
-Close System: exchanges energy but not materials
First law energy efficiency
-The ratio of useful energy output to the total energy input of a device or process
-Useful energy output of a device / energy input of the device
-(Focus on device) How much energy input is being used to turn the chain wheel on the chain
saw.
Second law energy efficiency
-The ratio of the theoretical minimum amount of energy to perform a task to the energy input
of a device or process
-Minimum amount of useful energy theoretically needed / energy input of the device
-(Focus on task) How much energy is needed to turn the chain wheel at enough speed which
will make the chain saw possible to cut the butter.
Two main sources of energy
-Nuclear reaction
-Gravitational Force
-E.g. Biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, tidal
Relative Energy magnitudes near Earth’s surface
-Solar radiation > Geothermal energy > Tidal energy
Energy Supply Options for Humans
-Intercept the continuous flow of solar and geothermal energy at and just below the earth’s
surface (wind, biomass, tidal, ocean geothermal, wave, hydropower, solar thermal, solar
light)
-Exploit until exhausted the non-renewable, high-exergy geothermal energy near the earth’s
surface
-Exploit until exhausted the non-renewable chemical energy in fossil fuels
-Convert matter into energy via nuclear fission and perhaps fusion
Human Energy System
-Primary energy: energy at its point of extraction/production
* Fossil fuel deposits, nuclear, wind, hydropower, Biomass
-Secondary energy: energy that has been processed into an input for end-use devices
* Electricity, heat, hydrogen, biofuels
-Tertiary energy: energy performing useful work at its point of application
Heating, cooling, lighting, cooking
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Intermittent and Dispatchable form of Renewable Energy
-Intermittent (Non Dispatchable): wind, solar, run of river hydro
-Non-intermittent (Dispatchable): hydro dam, geothermal
The Greenhouse effect
- Solar heat energy enters the atmosphere, some just reflected at atmospheric level. From that solar
heat that has entered the atmosphere, some gets reflected at sea level, some gets absorbed. From
those heat that has been reflected at sea level should escape the atmosphere but GHG substances
blocks them from escaping. Eventually those heats are trapped between earth and the atmosphere
causing the temperature increase.
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