SA 150 Midterm: SA 150 MIDTERM PREP #2

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SA 150 MIDTERM PREP #1
Chapter 4
- Formal organization: such as schools, businesses, health care companies and
government offices
- Bureaucracy: one “ideal type” of formal organization
Bureaucracy 6 Characteristics:
1. Hierarchical organization with delineated lines of authority
2. Fixed areas of activity, or clear division of labour
3. Bureaucratic officials with expert training
4. Explicit, recorded rules that guide action
5. Meritocratic bases for professional advancement
6. Rules implemented by neutral, or impersonal, officials
- Hierarchical organization: an individual answers to another individual who is in charge,
and that person must in turn answer to her own superior
- Division of labour: every person in a bureaucracy has a specific task, and is expected to
perform it and to become an expert in it
- Explicit organizational rules: are standardized and written down
- Rationalization: encourages people to rely on what are considered to be rational
calculations of how to best achieve an end goal
Rationalization Characteristics
1. Efficiency (People at the cash register check out customers, stockers keep the
shelves full of goods)
2. Predictability (Same store organization, carry same brands
3. Calculability (Employees use time cards to precisely calculate their hours and
pay)
4. Control/Monitoring (Employees wear uniforms (and usually name tags) so
they can be easily identified)
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- Substantive rationality describes a way of organizing that is explicitly designed as an
alternative to the Weberian bureaucratic focus on efficiency and profits
- Institution: the socially constructed, historical patterns of material subsistence, organize
time and space, and provide meaning to their social reality
Practice (campaigning before political elections, marriage)
Belief or Assumption (knowledge as something based on science, the
existence of race and gender)
Sets of organizations (the military, the health care system)
Ritual (convocation, the national anthem at sporting events)
Ways of doing things (having weekends as breaks from work)
- Institutionalized
1. They are taken for granted as a fixed part of the social environment
2. They are accepted as legitimate parts of society (whether everyone likes
them or not)
Chapter 5
Introducing Inequality
- Wealth and Income
o Economic class we often think of a person’s standard of living
o Three major classes
Working or lower classes
Middle classes
Upper classes
o Subcategories
Upper-middle class
Lower-upper class
o Important to differentiate income and wealth
o Figures might be for families, but they are often for household wealth or income
o Household is a group of people living together, whether or not they are a family
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o A household’s yearly income is how much money comes into the possession of
people in the household
o Wealth generally refers to a family’s net worth: the total assets held by a family
minus the total amount of debt
o Canada’s considered a “middle-class society”
o Tracking income and wealth distribution is one way of describing the extent of
social inequality in Canada
o Different people might see the same income or the same level of wealth as high or
low: relative wealth or poverty
Thinking about More than Money
o 4 Factors
Wealthy
Power
Prestigious
High incomes
3 major approaches to social class are inspired by: the work of Karl Marx, Max Weber and
Pierre Bourdieu
Marx and Materialism
o Marxist class analysis takes a materialist approach to inequality in capitalist
economies
o Marx (1818-1883) saw social class as being first and foremost about economics,
and specifically how society produces and exchanges things
o He analyzed society during the 19th-century era of industrialization, when people
were moving off of farms and factories were new
o 2 Groups: Wealth and Power
o Owners became the bourgeoisie could live by benefiting from the labour of
other people the working class, or the proletariat
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Document Summary

Formal organization: such as schools, businesses, health care companies and government offices. Bureaucracy: one ideal type of formal organization. Hierarchical organization: an individual answers to another individual who is in charge, and that person must in turn answer to her own superior. Division of labour: every person in a bureaucracy has a specific task, and is expected to perform it and to become an expert in it. Explicit organizational rules: are standardized and written down. Rationalization: encourages people to rely on what are considered to be rational calculations of how to best achieve an end goal. Substantive rationality describes a way of organizing that is explicitly designed as an alternative to the weberian bureaucratic focus on efficiency and profits. Institution: the socially constructed, historical patterns of material subsistence, organize time and space, and provide meaning to their social reality. Belief or assumption (knowledge as something based on science, the existence of race and gender)

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