[SA 150] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (94 pages long)

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SA 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SA 150 Textbook Reading #1
Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociological Thinking
What is Sociology?
- Sociology is the systematic study of human behaviour in a social context
- Try to describe and to explain the social world
o Ex: how much time do husbands vs. wives spend on raising children?
o Ex: Are visible minorities more likely to be shot by police than white people?
Fundamental Concepts and Terms
- Social: Sleeping is a biological and psychological phenomenon but it’s also social
- Social phenomenon: An aspect of human life that is rooted in society or social
interaction rather than in individuals (growth of online bullying)
- Social processes: Are specific type of social phenomenon (how bosses and employees
establish their hierarchies; the idea of people belonging to different races)
- Social fact: Phenomena or processes, customs, trends, etc. They are findings of
sociological research (Coined by Émile Durkheim) (Gender inequality)
- Social structures: Organize societies and social life, and they shape our individuals lives
as well. Ex: how race affects their life also depends on their racial identity
- Microsociology: Focuses on people in society: why some people feel freer to harass
others online than in person, and which sorts of online settings might more effectively
discourage it
The Origins of Sociology
- Auguste Comte, a French scholar (1798-1857)
- He coined “Sociology” as the science of society and of human social behaviour
- The Industrial Revolution changed society a lot
The Sociological Imagination
- Wright Mills (1916-1962) coined the concept of the Sociological Imagination
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- Sociological imagination is the ability to see the relationship between an individual and
society
Social Influences on Personal Behaviour: Suicide
- Émile Durkheim’s classic and important study of suicide (1897)
- Durkheim looked at statistics in different areas in Europe and found that suicide rates
remained fairly constant year by year, but differed across regions
- Trends he found suggested something was going on that went beyond individual
motivations no correlation of rates of suicide and rates of psychopathology in an area
- Suicide rates varied, however by people’s religious affiliation: Protestants had higher
rates of suicide than Catholics and Catholics had higher rates than Jews
- Durkheim didn’t blame religion, but social integration in the different religious
communities
Sociological Theories
- Is a statement or prediction about how a set of interrelated concepts are connected; used
to describe, explain and also predict how society and its parts are related to each other
- Grand theories: attempt to explain universal aspects of social processes or problems, and
are generally based on abstract ideas and concepts rather than on evidence from specific
research projects
- Ex: Conflict Theory, Functionalism and Symbolic Interactionism
- Conflict theory see the social world as inevitably shaped by conflict and competition
- Functionalism sees societies as having different parts that tend to work together to keep
everything going in an orderly way
- Symbolic interactionism is, in some ways, in between: it sees social interactions and
phenomena not as inevitably working together peacefully and focuses more on how
people negotiate situations rather seeing them as necessarily competing
Parenting and Work: Testing Social Theories
- Maternal instinct
- Cultural pressure
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Document Summary

Sociology is the systematic study of human behaviour in a social context. The industrial revolution changed society a lot. Mile durkheim"s classic and important study of suicide (1897) Durkheim looked at statistics in different areas in europe and found that suicide rates remained fairly constant year by year, but differed across regions. Trends he found suggested something was going on that went beyond individual motivations no correlation of rates of suicide and rates of psychopathology in an area. Suicide rates varied, however by people"s religious affiliation: protestants had higher rates of suicide than catholics and catholics had higher rates than jews. Durkheim didn"t blame religion, but social integration in the different religious communities. Everything is a symbol: round things with colours. Didn"t know much about football and now knows everything. Man doesn"t approve of how those men get away with things off the field (abusing their partner) Theory and research: the influence of disengagement theory.

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