SA 150 Final APRIL 2011

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Sociology and Anthropology
SA 150
Ann Travers

13 Gender Stratification Sex – is the biological distinctions between males and females - primary and secondary sex characteristics Gender – the personal traits and social positions members of society attach to being female or male - what is considered being masculine or feminine but it is not always clear cut Sex & Gender Diversity - transsexual - A person born with the physical characteristics of one sex who emotionally and psychologically feels that they belong to the opposite sex. - transgender - Identified with a gender other than the biological one - intersex – between male and female; hermaphroditism - it is not equally divided, diversity of sex Gender - pressure to conform - through peer pressure or learnt through socialization Culture variation – different cultures learned Historical variation – ideas of gender change over time Social organization patriarchy – males dominate females matriarchy – females dominate over males Gender and Sport - gender performance does not equal physiological - psychology, sociological discrimination, unjustified - no uncontaminated data - woman can participate in any sport with/against men - maintain marginalizing power in society - expels intersex 14 Race and Ethnicity Critical Thinking 1. Open minded and reflective - not intolerant, dismissive, why reaction? 2. Fair critical evaluation - generous, fairly identify strengths and weaknesses, concerns, gaps 3. Independent thinking - not conforming, own opinion The ‘F’ Word - intersection theory – the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage - race – socially constructed people that share biological transmitted traits, society important - racism – hierarchy, whose superior to others e.g. skin, hair, body shape, not fixed, arbitrary - ethnicity – shared cultural heritage; you can change ethnicity not race e.g. food Prejudice & Discrimination - prejudice – beliefs towards a group - discrimination – taking actions upon those beliefs 1. Prejudice and discrimination - expression of ethnocentrism or attempt to justify economic exploitation 2. Social Disadvantage - results of prejudice, occupy low position in the system of social stratification 3. Belief in minority’s innate inferiority - evidence minority innately inferior, unleashing renewed discrimination , repeats Privilege – how individuals are/aren’t discriminated by the same actions due to race 12 Global Stratification - social inequality not within nations but between them Relative poverty – deprivation of some people in relation those who have more, not from life threatening; like starvation Absolute poverty – lack of resources that is life-threatening Neo-colonialism – a new form of power relations which involve economic exploitive control by multi- national corporations - instead of first, second, and third worlds, use high, middle and low income nations due to being ethnocentric and outdated - in high-income nations, 22% of the world’s population but 80% of world’s income - low income 19% of population, 2% of world’s income Birth Rates: A Global Perspective - poor countries have the highest birth rate, and gender inequality - women have limited access to reproductive healthcare - not personal decision, general social patterns influence choices - Canada birth rate is below replacement levels; without immigration would shrink - in contrast, Africa has highest population growth - high income, children represent financial commitment, anticipate help the children get through post- secondary, same potentials don’t exist for parents in low-income countries - In Canada, low income retirement pensions unheard of, children contribute, help out - more children die in lower-income countries - increase standards of living, healthcare, food security, and education to resolve issue Global Stratification and Colonialism: Talking about race - Colonialism – process which nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations - late 15 and 20 century, discovery of new lands by Europeans - compete to control over African nations, involved white people exploiting people of others - racist views: not accountable for ‘‘real’’ people, don’t count, declare empty land - all societies were backward and In need of civilization Divide and conquer - systematically collected knowledge of various cultures - used existing divides in country to control the people - ideology – a belief that justifies a particular set-up Colonialism and India - initial interests were economic, used dived and conquer techniques - to start distrust between Hindu and Muslim groups - Mahatma Gandhi - major fighter for India’s independence, pacifist (opposed to war), lawyer, social rights, end
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