Midterm Notes - SA 335.docx

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Sociology and Anthropology
SA 335
Amie Mc Lean

Midterm Notes 6/20/2013 11:09:00 PM Week 2 What is Gender?  A social construction that one identifies with is not determined by birth. Gender is fluid and can be affected by external and internal influences o **Martin speaks about the hidden curriculum in schools to shape a child‟s behaviour and identify it as male or female  Gender is often assigned to you, opposed upon us vs. self-perceived o **Archer; many girls felt like boys but were looked upon as deviant girls and in order to fit into society they had to resort to wearing skirts and appearing/behaving as “good” girls would What does it mean to have an intersectional approach to gender?  Gender cannot solely exist on its own. Intersectionality exists with class, status, race, age, religion and sexuality that weave together to impact issues of gender What is the relationship to gender and the body?  Association of a common, distinctive biological “body image” is often misconceived as defining and understanding gender. It is more than a biological construction  However; expression of gender occurs through the body Sex = Biology  Sterling argues that there may be as many as 5 physically distinct sexes  Intersexual beings – medically treated o Until recently as social activism surfaced, intersexual people and notions of gender were challenged  2% of population Gender = Culture  Connell also identifies that the dichotomy is not simple; biology, the body and gender  Gender divisions may be rooted in biology due to: o Hormones that “naturally” occurred in the body o Chromosomes (x & y ) o Primary and secondary sex characteristics o Physical size and strength o Reproductive differences  Culture affects the body – phenotypes impact genotypes  Connell o Ideas of gender uses body as a point of reference  Body is a site where something social happens  Body is a part but doesn‟t encompass everything that gender is Revisiting Gender: Butler and Sangster  Butler and Connell challenge notions of gender o Reject the idea that sex = biology and gender = culture o May be asking completely different questions  Judith Butler o Performativity  We PERFORM gender; bodies are texts – we write, perform, create and act out gender  Something that constantly occurs, does not end  Gender can or cannot be accomplished (ongoing)  Perform gender in various ways according to context, ongoing nature of gender performativity o Gender is: “a practice of improvisation within a scene of constraint”  We are slaves to gender norms, we carry an agency but society constrains us  De-materialize bodies  Sangster (Making of a fur Coat) o Need to acknowledge capitalism and material bodies; women and women‟s working class history o Colonialism and Capitalism  Impact on women‟s bodies o Re-state her argument  She sys to avoid extremes; body never changes and body that doesn‟t exist (Butler)  Recognize the material body that is externally influenced  There is a need to mention body because those bodies are impacted with racialization, feminized or sexualized o How does she characterize the body‟s relationship to gender and to labour?  Devaluing racialized people and racialized women‟s labour  “Unfinished body”  Speaking against post-modernist ideas  Butler o Body is not stable, fluid o Something that we work on and work with  Need to acknowledge it as a physical entity  Connell o “Gender is the structure of social relations that centres on the reproductive arena, and the set of practices that bring reproductive distinctions between bodies into social processes”  Butler o “Gender is manufactured through a sustained set of acts, posited through the gendered stylization of the body” o “A practice of improvisation within a scene of constraint” Gender and Paid Labour  Private (Women) and Public (Men) Divide o Devaluation of women‟s labour o Caregiving and nurturing; biologically women were “made” to do (Not considered work)  Roles for functionality and to challenge is to exhaust?  Men helping at home, women also working..  Labour Market Inequality o Wages  Why should women be penalized for their reproductive duty?  Especially if those offspring will be citizens of the future  Reproductive arena o Participation rates  Occupational segregation o Pink ghetto; occupations that are associated with caregiving and nurturing  Often devaluated labour o Women moving into male-dominated positions and not vice versa  Glass-ceiling effect; does it also impact men in female-dominated positions.. No, however men were pushed to take on male-dominated jobs  Primary school teachers o Mobility opportunity o Masculine jobs are associated with embodied risk  Non-Standard Work o Every age, women are involved with non-standard work  Temporary, part-time; more responsible at home  Intersectionality with race o White women were able to work at will Bakan & Kobayashi  Employment equity policies need to be kept in place and reinforced Video clip  Motherhood penalty  Wage gap o Women don‟t ask and do not negotiate o Women are socialized to be passive and accept what they are offered whereas men are told to go out and get what they deserve Week 3 How Has the Division of Labour changed over Time?  Pre-Industrialization and Colonization o Male-dominated occupations  Hunting  Blacksmith  Military  Farmers o Female-dominated occupations  Food preparations  Mid-wives  Industrialization and Development of the Nuclear family o Female-dominated occupations  More farmer jobs  Teachers/Caregivers  Family business (General Store) o Male-dominated occupations  Trades  Jobs outside of the home  Contemporary Urban Society o More neutral/equal  Formal barriers have been largely removed Pre-Colonization  Indigenous Nations  Gender Orders: Patriarchal, Patrilocal, Matrifocal, Matrilocal, Matrilineal etc. o Strongest bond was between mother and child  Fishing, Agricultural, Military  Social roles of gender division of labour o Women carried some control over their sexuality, some degree of authority  Managed their homes  Medicinal knowledge, ancient herbs, and birth control Colonization  White Settler Society o Established by Europeans of non-European land o Racial hierarchy  Private/Public dichotomy was not as distinct  Agricultural pursuit was a neutral affair  Slavery o Intersectionality with race (gender was racialized) o Black and mostly Indigenous peoples were enslaved o **Jiwani; Eurasian Hero  How Eurasian women were portrayed and objectified  Asian women was “unintelligent but exotic”  Existed to please a white male Industrialization  Development of urban centres, factories and city jobs were becoming populated  Working class women did find jobs in factories o Paid 1/3 of a man‟s wage  Ideology of Domesticity o Working women were regarded as lower status o Glorifying women as home-makers  Women carried characteristics that suited these roles  Sensitive, caring, emotional  Positive male attributes  Competitive, Strength, powerful  Racial and Class Inequality o Dangerous jobs at the railway (Chinese male immigrants)  Extreme working conditions  Low wage o Women Chinese immigrants  Prostitutes  Not allowed into nursing or teaching professions until 1940‟s o Indian women were also marginalized due to their race; prohibited from entering Canada o White women were able to enter the workforce but relied on minority women to fulfill household chores Discussion  Technology and The Gendered Division of Labour Today o Laundry timeline  Women‟s domestic labour? o Clorox 2 o Dodge Charger  Relationship between man and domestic work? Relationship with Technology?  Caregiving Labour  Domestic labour underwrites and promotes social reproduction o Isn‟t taking care of the home and children considered work?  Second wave feminism o Vocal in advocating women participation in the public sphere o Violence against women o Changes in divorce and child custody laws o Implementing shelters  Racial inequality o White women relying on underpaying  Bell Hooks  Home was a site of resistance from racism  Intersectional way of race and gender Caregiving Case Study: SARS  Issues of caregiving, gender and race  Working/Social conditions of the situation  Wage gap: gender and race o Widening gap between Canadian-born and immigrant women and men o Canada has been defined by immigration  Immigration Policy in a White Settler Society o Written and racialized documents o Points system (criteria) o Favours class-advantaged males o Females enter as a dependent spouse  Multiculturalism and notions of the „Good‟ (and „bad‟) Immigrant o “Don‟t bring your parents for welfare” o Control and regulate immigration o No attention to social justice issues and less focus on the family values  Racism as a result of multiculturalism, SARS from immigrants? o SARS as a “Chinese disease” o Domestic caregivers were denied to go outside of work o Nurses who were in a dangerous position and receiving racist remarks were the “good” immigrant Christiansen: Good Provider Role  Assumption that fathers should provide o Male breadwinner o Taken for granted  Invisible nature of providing o Mother with domestic, unpaid and private work (unimportant) o Father provides at the workplace  Family doesn‟t see input of the father (energy, stress, physical force)  Father helps with pregnancy, household chores (competing with involvement?)  Children view fathers role directly (splitting cash, paper bills  Negative connotations of traditional provider o Distant (outside of home) o Strict (controlling income “their money”) o Mother depends on male o Father is giving his children a better education by providing resources  Role of a provider o Several roles embedded  husband, provider and a worker  Dimensions are invisible  Parent as physically interacting hence father is perceived as not contributing o They would like to interact but their responsibility req
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