SA 345 Review Midterm 2 Review

17 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
Sociology and Anthropology
SA 345
Wendy Chan

SA 345 Review - Midterm 2 - Refugees and Security Week 7 + 8: Refugees News Articles: Canada Took Fewer Conservatives derease # of refugees accepted Refugees 2012 to 2011 26% decrease  No Syrian refugee plan  Security issues in refugee camps  Capping of 3 refugees accepted from private sponsors Overhaul of Asylum system  Gov asking more private groups to take on more refugees done to save tax payer $ Behrens Bill C 43 - Faster removal of Foreign Criminals Act  Double punishment bill  without full citizenship you can be o deported if criminally convicted o not allowed to see and examine reason and context of conviction o threat of family removal  Permanent residents o if convicted of a 6 month or more sentence prior to new bill can still get deported o No access to appeal o family also at risk of deportation Bill C 43 mostly effects long term residents People suspected of crime OUTSIDE of Canada also at risk  no proof needed for conviction Immigration minister can deny entry to Canada to anyone for a period of THREE years based on undefined 'public policy grounds'. Wales MV refugees thrown in jail and subject to mandatory detention upon arrival.  Mental illness arises from trauma  many die  many seekers have psychological issues and detention amplifies this. Family physicians usually first to deal with claimants Levine * Hungarian claimants usually not treated as refugees because they are viewed as a safe country.  Hungarian claimants 'not creditable'  mostly because they are from a democratic country Recent years - a resurrection of the Nazi party supporters creating fire bombings in Romas. Hungarian authorities are failing to investigate racially motivated crimes. Readings: Fassin - Truth of More people presenting themselves as refugees. Creating raised Asylum doubts about claims and validity. Growing suspicion of asylum seekers fuelled by increasing stories of deception and forgery. Thus, hospitality is changing for economic immigrants. Questioning the Truth: Few forged and faked cases of refugees. These few cases are used to represent all refugees and used as examples. Material interests (economy) vs Geneva Convention (humanitarian) You get to stay if youre companionate. Rousseau - IRB Immigration & Refugee Board (IRB) hear the stories of refugees and determine whether they will be allowed into Canada or not. Listen to 2 claimants each week, for 3 weeks straight with 1 week to make a decision. Weight and access evidence. Usually reject people based on lack of documentary evidence. Believe stories are implausible cause they lack the evidence. IRB members lack the psychological and cultural knowledge. Often force the refugee claimant to recall painful memories. Often times emotional responses are interpreted as lack of credibility. As a coping mechanism refugees may laugh at sad events, this is normal psychologically but IRB does not have the knowledge to know this. Culturally, IRB member may not know about the customs and what is normal in the refugees country of origin. Particularly in the perceptions of time and space. They have a warped concept/ image of what daily life is like. Inability to appreciate cultural norms means an inability to appreciate cultural styles of narration. Refugee needs to convey the image of a CONVENTION refugee to be accepted. Make a sob story to be heard and accepted. Claimants have a hard time communicating story and information due to lack or resources and trauma. PSYCHOLOGIST predicts behaviour prior to hearing thus causing problems for the refugee when he/she's actions or responses do not follow the prediction. Atmosphere of hearings effects refugee. Creates high stress and fear, even aggressive behaviour. Lecture: Refugees typically flee via land to neighbouring countries  Ex. Germany Iran (Germany has high acceptance rate)  81% of the worlds refugees were hosted in DEVELOPING countries  Substantial increase in child refugees (50% persons of concern under 18) Definition of Refugee:  Legal term  Person outside of his/ her home country and w ho has a well founded fear of PERSECUTION for reasons of: o Race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion o Defined at Geneva convention (1951) o Canada also accepts those based on gender, substantial danger of torture, risk to their life or at risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.  Narrow guidelines/ criteria  Must be privately or government sponsored  can't send them back to country of origin or where they maybe in danger  Problems: o Can't really say you are being persecuted by Taliban because they aren't really a government... technically Asylum Seekers  People who have sought international protection and whose claims for REFUGEE STATUS HAVENT BEEN DETERMINED  Refugees have certain RIGHTS. Asylum seekers don't  People who are waiting to become refugees and have put in a claim Internationally Displaced People (IDPs)  People or groups forced to leave home for reasons of conflict, generalized violence, human rights, violations, natural/ human disasters.  Have not crossed an INTERNATIONAL BORDER  EX: forced to leave vancouver because of an earth quake and you cross to live in calgary Stateless People  People not considered as citizens of any state under national law  people with no documentation  nobody wants you and you belong no where Refugees in Canada: Host of international and national conventions that govern how people are to be treated if seek refuge in Canada.  Singh Decision (1985) refugee claimants entitled to basic standards of rights protection (basic level or protection)  Asylum from persecution = human right  Church is the only place government cannot go into (only sanctuary against state action) Global Cooling Towards Refugees Industrialized states becoming less welcoming. Making it harder for refugees to reach their destination.  EX: Canada makes sure you have documents before boarding a plane boat etc.  Refugees are easy scapegoats - powerless  Usually thrown in jail upon arrival  Top 5 countries coming to Canada for help: China Syria Myths  Most are 'queue jumpers'  Required to make claim in the nearest or first country they reach  People who use smugglers are less likely to be refugees in need of protection  Harsh policies will stop smugglers and asylum seekers arriving by boat  REMEMBER Refugees have little to no resources o May not be able to travel via conventional means cause they fled at the middle of the night o no money or documents Canadian Refugee System: Two ways to become a refugee and get protection from Canada.  Resettlement program (Gov or private sponsor)  Refugee claim process Protected gain right to work and study but no right to family reunification unless theyre a permanent resident (need to apply for this). Refugees either go back by themselves (voluntary repatriation), go to a neighbouring country or are resettled (via governments or private sponsorship). Resettlement Program Two groups - government and private sponsorship. A new category is when government and private sponsors collaborate to bring a refugee over. To quality you must satisfy:  Eligibility (from from a country with lots of refugees, fit a convention refugee definition)  Admissibility (no crime and in good health)  Successful establishment (will fit in Canada)  No prospect of another durable solution (no other options)  Financial support (gov, private or your own money) Will receive one year's worth of financial assistance or till they can support themselves financially. Refugee Determination System Person applies within Canada - 'negative refugees' Person can not make a claim if:  Applied before  Recognized as a refugee in another country  Came through a safe 3rd country (USA)  Inadmissible on basis of security, serious criminality, member of organised criminal group or violation of human or international rights. If refused you can apply for judicial review to the federal court. If unsuccessful you face prospect of removal (you need to hire a lawyer). If you get rejected after that you can apply for a humanitarian and compassionate claim but that is only for permanent residents. Pre migration Trauma exposure to war, torture, violence, targeted prosecution, forced labour, forced migration and family separation. Health Risks - significant physical and mental issues. Post Migration Acceptance as a refugee Processing times (years) Poverty, Being in limbo, racism, family reunification (long time), negative public reaction, don't speak language No work experience, pushes into poverty. Cant get going until you get status (limbo) no documents. Recent Legislative Reforms Bill C - 31: Protecting Canadas Immigration System Act - December 2012  15 days from arrival to apply for refugee status  minister can deem you an 'irregular arrival' - means youll be detained for 1 year without warrant and review (EX: MV Sun - not a passenger boat)  can lose right o stay in Canada if thinks you dont risk persecution in your home country anymore. Citizenship is the only protection.  Minister alone gets to decide which countries are 'safe' if youre from these countries your refugee claim is deemed less important and have less rights (DCO's - designated countries of origin - safe country list). Key Concerns  Designated Countries of Origin (DCO) politizcizes situation?  Timelines are unrealistic and impossible to submit a proper claim; not fair  Emphasis on punishing refugees - 'irregular arrivals' can be locked up for a year regardless of innocence  Failed claimants have 15 days to file an appeal; NO APPEAL FOR IRREGULARS or if you are from a DCO  Conditional permanent resident - minimum 5 years delayed family reunification. Trends:  Over use of detention  Too much emphasis on security concerns  Safe 3rd country - unfair to make refugees make claims in countries with low acceptance rates  Blocking refugees from travelling places puts them at risk. EX: Canada stopping them from boarding planes etc.  Trafficking is becoming a concern - women and children trafficked to Canada fall between cracks in the system. Treated as criminals. Film - Seeking Refuge Your story must be consistent with the countries information. You need to prove that youre from _________ country at hearings. All decisions are made by ONE member. You have to get lucky in order to be accepted. You answer questions for 1 hour and 30mins straight. If your hearing was not enough you are asked for written submissions. This means the member was not fully convinced. You are given time to obtain your documents. Even if you have the same stories one of you may not be admitted (the brothers). Kedar the Blind Algerian He was rejected and took sanctuary in a church. Stayed for two years in Quebec. He owned a shop in Algeria with his brother but left due to civil war and went to the USA, integrated a bit but had to leave the US cause of anti Muslim attitudes. Week 9 - Borders and Security News Articles: Yargas - Life as an Guy left the Philipines at the age of 12 to live with his undocumented Immigrant grandparents. His mother sent him there by using a human smuggler. His grandfather purchased fake documents and a green card for him. His mom was not able to come to the states complications with family ties and documents. Many people accepted and helped him along the way. He faces many issues now that he has come out. Gollom - Omnibus bill Integrated cross border law enforcement Operations Act  American officers allowed to cross border into Canada  Have same power to enforce act of parliament as a member of the RCMP For small boat crews only right now - land agreement to come USA Officers allowed to come to Canadian soil if they're under a 'hot pursuit' for land. Readings: Pratt - Who gets pulled over Border guards pull people over based on racial profiling, experience and 6th sense. Three types of Searches: - Routine questioning (baggage search) - Strip or skin search (private room after secondary inspection with permission of supervisor) - Body cavity search Different meanings for reasonable suspicion in court and at border. Opinion and experience > Truth and hard facts Indicators include body language, style of speech, clothing, perfume and past hit rates for a group of people. Sometimes officers are rewarded for having high hit rates and they have trophy photos. There are also informal networks and communications. Like word of mouth. This is used because sometimes information is not put onto the databases fast enough. Officer needs 4 - 5 indicators to justify reasonable suspicion. For example, I did it based on my training experience and these two indicators. Reasoning is backed by hit rates and statistics. CYA Theory - Cover your ass Theory. Ameeriar - Gendered South Asian and Muslims dont travel to the stats post 9/11 thus Suspect they do not feel its effected them too much. Muslim women seen as in need of saving. Officers think they seek refugee because they get beat by their husband. They are seen as innocent. BUT if they do not fit this image they become illegal and labelled a suspect. This image is shaped by the media and high profile cases such as Roohi Tabassum who was beat and left Pakistan because she feared being killed since she had touched another mans hair. Officers pull women because they think they are doing them a favour. Lecture: Border Control Key strategy in controlling immigration Canada/ USA Border - Economic concerns + Issues Sometimes called International Boundary - longest NON MILITARIZED border in the world  USA has been fortifying borders significantly (EX: Mexico - USA fence)  Canada + USA taken steps designed to keep closer tabs on who and what crosses the border while avoiding as much as possible making life harder for people and businesses that have grown used to travelling quickly and easily between the two countries.  HARMONIZATION of policies: o Nexus program o Shared facilities o Integrated Border enforcement teams (IBETS) o Pre Inspections (pass customs on Canada before entering the US)  Police allowed to cross border and continue investigation  2 sets of border issues o Bottlenecks at borders: physical infrastructure and need to have pre clearence trade at border o New Compliance requirements that companies must meet in order to cross border.  Increase in security is not increasing efficiency. Controlling International Migration - Security Concerns + Issues Border control is about controlling the flow of people. Borders are beyond control and little can be done. Developed c
More Less

Related notes for SA 345

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.