# STAT 100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Simple Random Sample, Observational Error, Confidence IntervalPremium

5 pages94 viewsFall 2018

School

Simon Fraser UniversityDepartment

StatisticsCourse Code

STAT 100Professor

Marie LoughinStudy Guide

FinalThis

**preview**shows page 1. to view the full**5 pages of the document.**Individuals – objects described by a set of data (ie.

people, animals, things, names, months, time of year,

people in a study).

Variables – characteristics of the individuals. (ie. major,

gpa, average temp, gender, income, bacteria type).

Categorical variables – places individual into groups. (ie.

major, grades, job, gender).

Numerical variables – numerical values for operations to

make sense (ie. age, income).

Observational study – observes variables for individuals

without interfere with responses. Response variable –

measures outcome or results in study.

Sample survey – part of pop where info was collected

from (important in observational studies), surveys

groups of individuals by studying only some of its

members to represent an entire group.

Population – entire group of individuals where info was

collected from (ie. Canadian residents, ctv viewers).

Sample – part of pop where we collect info from to draw

conclusions about the whole pop (ie. participants in a

poll, households). - Sample surveys start with entire pop

and uses specific methods to choose a sample to

represent pop.

Census – sample survey that attempts to include entire

pop in sample (ie. US constitution doing one every 10

years). Sometimes impossible/incomplete so sample

survey instead. Cost a lot, not time efficient.

Biased sampling – systematically favours certain

outcomes.

Convenience sampling – selection of subjects based on

availability (non-representative) (ie. voluntary response).

Simple random sample – size of n consists of n

individuals from the pop chosen in a way that every set

of n individual has an equal chance in participating. (n =

required size of sample) (ie. online software, hat,

labelling).

Parameter (p) - # that describes a summary of pop (fixed

#), unknown actual value.

Statistic (^p) - # that describes a sample, used to

estimate unknown parameter.

• - 548 voted yes out of 1015. ^p = 548/1015 =

0.5399 = 54% voted yes\

• - Random sampling eliminates bias, but still can

be wrong b/c of the variability when randomly

choosing.

• - If take lots of random samples from same size

of pop there is less variability (more

predictable).

• - ^p has no bias as an estimator of p.

• - To reduce bias -> use random sampling

• - To reduce variability -> use larger sample

MOE – statistic or proportion used to see how

close estimates are, generally 50% or between

20-80%.

• - Translate sampling variability into a statement

of how much confidence we have in results of a

study.

• - MOE = 1/sqrt of n (ie. 1/sqrt 1000 =

1/31.6228 = 0.0316 = 3.16%)

• - Proportion of a pop has the same outcome

success as p.

95% confidence – if we took many samples

using the same method, 95% of the samples

should give a result within + or – 4% of the truth

of the pop. (95% confident the truth lies within

the MOE).

MOE for 95% confidence – 95% confidence with

4% MOE means statistic will be 4% of the real

pop value 95% of the time.

Confidence statement – MOE & confidence

statement (level of confidence = % of all

possible samples that satisfy MOE).

• - Ie. estimate + or – MOE approximate 95%

confidence interval (^p + or – 1/sqrt n)

• - 85% of people + or – 2.4% own a cellphone

=82.6 < p < 87.4

• - Ie. ^p = 57% with MOE = 1sqrt 2142 = 0.22 =

22% = 57 + or – 2.2 = 54.8 < p <59.2

Sampling Errors – cause by taking a sample, results are

different from results of census.

Non-sampling errors – not related to selecting a sample.

Random sampling errors – deviation between sample

statistic & pop parameter caused by selecting RS.

- MOE in confidence statement includes only random

sampling errors.

Stratified random sample – divide sampling frame into

group of individuals (strata), take simple random sample

from each stratum and combine to make a complete

sample.

• - Ie. households (strata) on each block arranged

in order of location and divided into groups

called clusters.

• - Take separate samples from each stratum ->

usually proportional to size of pop ->

guarantees the sample

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matches pop in relation to the strata.

Response variable – measured an

outcome/results of study.

Explanatory variable – we think explains or

causes changed to response variable (IV or DV).

Lurking variable – has important effect on

relationship between 22 variables but not one

of the previous types.

- Use randomized response method for sensitive

questions.

Completely randomized experimental design – all

subjects allocated at random among all treatments.

Matched pairs design – compares 2 treatments in pairs

chosen closely matched as possible.

Blocked design – group of subjects that are known

before experiment to be similar in some way as

expected to affect the treatment (controls effects of

confounding variables).

Data ethics: institutional review board, informed consent, confidentiality.

• - Use instruments to make measurements, units record the measurements.

• - We measure a property of a person or thing when we assign a value to represent the property.

• - The result of a measurement is a numerical variable that takes different values for people or things that differ in

whatever we are measuring.

• - A variable is a valid measure of a property if it is relevant or appropriate as a representation of that property.

• - A rate (fraction, proportion or percentage) at which something occurs is more valid measure than a simple

count of occurrences.

• - A measurement of a property has predictive validity if it can be used to predict success on tasks that are related

to the measured property.

• A measurement has bias if it systematically tends to overstate/understate the true value of the

measured property.

• A measure has random error if repeated measurements of the same individual give different results.

• If random error small, we say the measurement is reliable.

• Using averages to improve reliability, the average of several repeated measures of the same individual is

more reliable than a single measurement.

• - Look for inconsistencies, missing info, incorrect arithmetic, implausible numbers, too regular appearing

numbers or hidden agendas.

Valid - if measurement of a property is a good representation of that property. Percentage increase & decrease

Ie. first quiz scored 5/20. Second quiz scored 10/20. Verify the percentage increase from first to second quiz is

100%. On third quiz, student got 5 again.

- 100% increase means score has doubled.

Percentage change = amount of change/starting value x 100 or (x-y)/y x 100

Distribution – of a variable tells us what values it takes

and how often.

- Use pie & bar for categorical.

Categorical V – places individual into groups/categories.

Quantitative V – numerical values for arithmetic

operations.

Pie charts – whole divided into parts, not good for

comparisons. (categorical)

Bar graph – better to compare sizes (also side by side

type).

- Both show distribution of categorical variables.

Line graphs – quantitative measured at intervals over

time (time on x axis, variable on y axis, connect by a

line).

- Look for overall pattern, trends

(upward/downward movement over time),

deviations from the pattern, seasonal

variations.

Histogram – measures quantitative variables, look for

patterns, deviations and outliers.

Shape – distribution peak (single, symmetric).

Center – midpoint close to single peak.

Variability – ignoring outliers (%).

Relative frequency histogram – better for comparing 2

distributions.

Stemplot – for small data sets.

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