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PSYC 15065G Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Hermann Von Helmholtz, Opponent Process, Hair Cell

Faculty of Applied Health and Community Studies
Course Code
PSYC 15065G
Ruth Martin
Study Guide

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Theories Summary (Chapter 3)
1. Theories of Color Vision
There are two theories about how people can see colors:
1. Trichromatic theory
-First proposed by Thomas Young
-Proposed three types of cones: red, blue and green cones
-The combination of the three cones and the rate at which they fire their
message to the brain’s vision center that determines the color that will
be seen
2. Opponent- process theory
-Proposed four primary colors: red, green, blue and yellow
-The colors are arranged in pairs: red with green and blue with yellow
-If one member of a pair gets strongly stimulated, the second member
gets inhibited, so it cannot work
-For instance, there cannot be reddish-green
2. Theories of Hearing
There are three primary theories about how the brain receives information about
1. Place theory
-Proposed by Hermann von Helmholtz
-In this theory, the pitch a person depends on where the hair cells that
are stimulated are located on the organ of Corti
2. Frequency theory
-Developed by Ernest Rutherford
-This theory states that pitch is related to how fast the basilar
membrane vibrate
-In other words, the faster it vibrates, the higher the pitch
3. Volley Principle
-Developed by Ernest Wever and Charles Bray
-Accounts for pitche from 400-4000 Hz
-This states that the hair cells (auditory neurons) fire in a volley pattern
(take turns in firing)
3. Theories of Somesthetic Senses
1. Gate-Control Theory
-Current explanation for how the sensation of pain works
-States that stimulation of pain receptor cells release a chemical called
Substance P
-This then gets released into the spinal cords and activates other
neurons that send messages into spinal gates
-The message then goes to the brain, where it then gets interpreted
2. Sensory Conflict Theory
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