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Midterm

SCIE 22273 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Red Blood Cell, Pineal Gland, Biliverdin


Department
Faculty of Applied Health and Community Studies
Course Code
SCIE 22273
Professor
Tara Hayes
Study Guide
Midterm

Page:
of 10
Midterm Review
Chapter 11 Endocrine System
Major endocrine glands are: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, pancreas
kidneys, thymus, reproductive organs (testes and ovaries)
Anterior pituitary hormones
Hormones secreted are: Growth Hormone (GH) , Prolactin (PRL) , Thyroid-
Stimulating Hormone (TSH) , Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Follicle-
Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
1. GH:
-Stimulate cells to grow
-Two hormones from the hypothalamus control the GH secretion: GHRH
(growth hormone releasing hormone) and GHIH (growth inhibiting
hormone)
2. PRL:
-Promoting milk production after birth
3. TSH
-Controls secretion of hormones from thyroid gland
-Hypothalamus regulates TSH by producing thyrotropin-releasing hormone
(TRH)
4. ACTH
-Controls secretions of hormones from adrenal cortex
5. FSH and LH
-Affect gonadotrophins, which are reproduction parts in males (testes) and
females (ovaries)
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Two hormones that get released are: Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin
(OT)
1. ADH:
-Reduces amount of water kidneys excrete
-Drinking too much water inhibits ADH release in kidneys. Therefore,
making excrete more until water concentration is normal
2. OT:
-Antidiurectic,but is weaker than ADH
-Stretching of uterus in later stages of pregnancy releasing oxytocin
-Suckling of the infant releases oxytocin
-Release is controlled by positive feedback
Thyroid Hormones
two hormones are synthesized:
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1. Thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine) (also known as T4 because it contains 4 atoms
of iodine)
2. Triiodothyronine (T3)
Third hormone produced by the Thyroid gland is Calcitonin
Not referred to as ‘thyroid hormone” because its produced from extra follicular
cells
Along with parathyroid (PTH), it regulates concentrations of blood calcium and
phosphate ions
As blood concentration increases, so does calcitonin secretion
Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Increases blood calcium concentrations and decreases blood phosphate ion
concentration
Hormones of the adrenal medulla
Two closely related hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine
Both increase heart rate, breathing rate and blood glucose levels
Hormones of adrenal cortex
1. Aldosterone
Helps kidneys conserve sodium ion and excrete potassium ions
2. Cortisol
Metabolism of glucose, protein and fat in response to condition that stress the
body
Hormones of Pancreatic Islets
1. Glucagon
Stimulates liver to break down glucagon
2. Insulin
Exactly opposite of glucagon
Other endocrine glands
1. Pineal gland
Secretes melatonin in response to light conditions outside the body
2. Thymus
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Secretes thymosin that affects production and differentiation of white blood cells
3. Placenta
Produces estrogens, progesterone and gonadrotopins
4. Digestive glands that secrete hormones are associated with linings of the
stomach
5. Organs outside of the endocrine also secrete hormones. For instance, the
heart secretes atrialnatriuetic peptie, which helps with urinary sodium
extraction. Also, the kidneys secrete erythropoietin which is a red blood cell
growth hormone
Chapter 12- Blood
Blood is a mixture of cells, fragments bio-chemicals that helps transport
substances, help maintain a stable intestinal fluid and distributes heat
Its cells include red blood cells (transport gases), white blood cells (helps fight
against disease), platelets (help control blood loss) and plasma
Red blood cells
Also known as: erythrocytes
Biconcave discs. Their shape is an adaptation which helps increase surface
area for transporting gases
Red blood cells have nuclei in their early stages, but lose it as they mature for
more space for the hemoglobin. But, they cannot synthesize/divide as they
mature (due to lack of nucleus)
Typical range of rbc is about 4,700,000-6,100,000 cells (males) and about
4,200,000-5,400,000 in females
Erythropoiesis initially occurs in yolk sac, liver and spleen. After birth, occurs in
red bone marrow
Where there is an oxygen deficiency, the kidneys and also the liver release
erythropoietin, which travels via the blood to red bone marrow and stimulates
rbc production
Vitamin B12 and folic acid are required for DNA synthesis
Iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis and normal rbc production
Hemoglobin from rbc break down to form “heme” and “globin”
Heme – further decomposes into iron and greenish pigment called biliverdin
Biliverdin gets converted into an orange pigment called bilirubin
Bother biliverdin and bilirubin get secreted into bile as pigments
Globin – breaks down into amino acids that get reused
Summary of the life cycle of the red blood cell
1. Small intestine absorbs nutrients
2. Blood transports absorbed nutrients
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