POFP 201 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Masculinity, Psychological Trauma, Victimology

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Test 2 Study Guide
Different Types of Crime
Report Sensitive Crimes Crimes that are sensitive to victims. If the victim does
not report it, then police wouldn’t know about it
Policing-Sensitive Crimes Crimes sensitive to law enforcement. Ex, drug crimes
investigated by police
Definition-Sensitive Crimes Crimes sensitive to legislative activity. Ex, gambling
has progressively been decriminalized due to loosening of the sanctions around it
Media-Sensitive Crimes Crime that is sensitive to media attention. Youth is often
a public concern and often makes the news
Instrumental Crimes Illegal activities reported by those unable to obtain desired
goods through conventional means. Theft, sale of narcotics, etc
Expressive Crimes Illegal activities that have no purpose except to accomplish
the behavior at hand. Ex, shooting someone during an argument
Aging out Process of individuals reduce the frequency of offending as they age
Same as Distance
Gender and Crime
- Women are more likely to be victimized in certain crimes such as sexual assault.
Women also often know the perpetrator 40% of the time.
- Men are more likely to be victimized by a stranger.
Masculinity Hypothesis The theory that women who commit crimes have
biological and physical traits similar to those of men
Androgens Male sex hormones which criminologists link to criminality
*Aboriginals are 12.5 times more likely to be victims of robbery, physical and sexual
assault
Victimology The study of the victims role in criminal transactions
Active Participation The aggressive behavior of victims, which provokes reaction
Passive Participation The view that personal and social characteristics of victims
make them attractive targets for predatory criminals
Aggravating Factor A circumstance that makes the crime more serious. Ex,
racism in an assault
Mitigating Factor A circumstance that makes a crime less serious. Ex, self defense,
young offender
*There are many government programs in place in effort to reduce the impact of
crime on victims. Often helps them with finances, counseling, psychological trauma,
etc.
Factors which affect hate crimes
1. Structural Poor economic conditions
2. Cultural Racial stereotypes in the media
3. Social Blaming the minority group for the misfortunes of society
Equivalent Group Hypothesis The view that victims and criminals have similar
characteristics
Crime funnel Amount of crimes committed > Crimes reported > Arrests >
Prosecuted > Convictions