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Study Guide

BIO 201 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Protein, Mollusca, Collagen


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 201
Professor
ALL
Study Guide
Final

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BIO 201

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BIOL 201: Animal Biology
Unifying Themes and Concepts in Animal Biology
Structure/function relationship
o Anatomy and physiology
Phylogeny/taxonomy
Homology and analogy
Evolution
o Adaptation
o Convergence and divergence
Biological levels of organization
o Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Why study animal diversity?
Ecology and evolution
o Protect the environment
o Understand our origins
Economy
o Food and other resources
o Rich repository of bioactive compounds
o Pests
Model organisms
o Physiology, biochemistry, medicine
What is an animal?
Multicellular
Eukaryote
Heterotrophic
Locomotion (at some point)
Cell junctions
Immune system
Tissues (+ collagen)
Hox genes
Neurotransmitters
Animals are Eukaryotes
Different Types of Cells
There and millions of species on earth
They can be divided into two groups: Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
The cells of major taxa differ so greatly they can be used to distinguish between them
Eukaryotes are very diverse, so we must find another way to distinguish between them
Eukaryotes: hae a uleus, disrete orgaelles, …
Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells
Plant cells have a cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts, etc
Animal cells have centrioles, no cell wall
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Fungi:
Have cell walls made of chitin
Animals are Heterotrophic
Living cells require energy from outside sources
Source of carbon: autotrophy/heterotrophy
Source of energy: Photoautotrophy/heteroautotrophy,
photoheterotrophy/chemoheterotrophy
Autotrophs: self-feeding, carbon comes from CO2
Heterotrophs: use organic molecules as their source of carbon (i.e. protein, glucose, etc)
Photoautotrophs: use energy from light
Chemoautotrophs: use energy from inorganic chemicals
Photoheterotrophs: light + organic molecules
Chemoheterotrops: use organic molecules as source of energy + carbon
Animals are Chemoheterotrophs
Animals are Multicellular
Toolkit for multicellularity mechanisms that coordinate:
1. Development (i.e. Hox genes)
2. Growth
3. Specialization (tissues)
4. Adhesion (tight junctions, desmosomes, etc.)
5. Death (apoptosis between digits to form fingers, killing disease, etc.)
6. Self- and non-self-recognition (immune system)
7. Communication between cells
All multicellular organisms evolved from unicellular organisms why is this understanding of
crucial importance?
What are unicellular organisms programmed to do as often as possible?
o Divide (reproduce)
Even as part of a multicellular organism, cells retain that ancestral programming to
divide and reproduce so hy do’t they?
Successful transition to multicellularity is dependent on:
1. Clear benefits from living as a group
2. Policing/control mechanisms that punish cheaters
Multicellular specializations:
Sticking together:
o Tight junction
Prevent leakages of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells by
forming
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