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[ANTH 1001H] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (29 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1001H
Professor
Lohmann Roger
Study Guide
Final

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Trent
ANTH 1001H
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Anthropology asks basic questions about ourselves. What do we share with other living things?
How did we come to exist? Where do we come from?
Practical application: we’re undermining our eco-system. Wars, genocide.
Anthropology is holistic, inclusive. It studies humans from all possible angles. Gives a broader
perspective than other fields of social sciences. Places humans within nature, we are not distinct
from other species.
Being humans we tend to think we’re superior, special to other species. Anthropology recognizes
humans are a part of nature. Our distinctiveness isn’t as profound as we would like it to be. We
are only 1 of the many millions of species. Earth is the only planet in the whole universe known
to have life of any kind.
We have to recognize that 90% of all species that ever lived on earth are no extinct. We must
realize that there is no escape from extinction.
We are genetically related to all living things. However, we have a profound kinship, are more
closely related to 2 species of apes- chimpanzees, bonobo
We are nearly 99% genetically identical to the 2 types of apes. We shared common ancestors
about 6 million years ago. We each have a distinct evolutionary past. We cannot mate with
other species. Divergence occurred through natural selection
Our own ancestors relied heavily on culture, learning information from other fellows on how to
do things. That’s is how we are different from apes
Distinguishing features of humans:
Bipedalism-walking on 2 legs
Grasping hands with fully opposable thumbs
Intense reliance on culture. Culture: information that’s capable of being socially learned
Language
Relatively large complex brain system.
Creativity and cultural variability.
Anthropology studies humankind . Developed as a discipline in the 19th century to explore
differences and commonalities among other species.
Early stages of anthropology:
Polygenesis vs monogenesis
Polygenesis- God created people multiple times
Monogenesis- 1 evolutionary origin
Racism vs psychic unity
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Progressive evolutionism
Characteristics of anthropology: holistic, comparative-do not jump to conclusions, evolutionary.
Cultural relativism: recognizing we need to see value in other civilizations, cultures, from their
point of view. We don’t necessarily need to agree with all their methods, but we need to try to
understand them
Subfields of anthropology-
biological/physical: studying humans as a living species, anatomy, physiology, genetics,
evolutionary process, how we came to existence, biological variance
archaeological: human past by studying/ exploring pieces humans have left behind.
Cultural
Linguistic
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