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Anthropology Exam Review.docx

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthropology Exam Review Week Two - Extreme aridity or water chemistry sometimes works to preserve bodies by inhibiting microbial activity through profound soft-tissue desiccation or through chemical alteration of the skin and flesh - Ancient DNA (aDNA) o Analysis has the potential to provide information on the hereditary relationships among ancient groups Week Three - Archaeological sites o There must be some detectable evidence of activity, such as the presence of artifacts, features, or other materials o Must have a geographic boundary o Can be classified by age, function, geographic context - Decomposition has 2 basic causes: biological activity and inorganic action. Week Four - Functionalist ethnographies integrate various aspects of culture with one another and with the culture as a whole to its environment - Middle-range theory is based on the notion that the archaeological record is a static and contemporary phenomenon – what survives today is of the once-dynamic past; begin with 3 fundamental assumptions: 1. The archaeological record is a static contemporary phenomenon 2. The contents of the archaeological record are a complex mechanical system 3. To understand and explain the past we must comprehend the relationship between static, material properties common to both past and present and the long-extinct dynamic properties of the past Week Six - In general, genus Homo differs from Australopithecines by having a larger, more rounded braincase; a smaller, less projecting face; smaller teeth; and eventually a larger body and more efficient striding bipedalism - The Dmanisi hominids are very similar to early African homo erectus - Together, the Oldawan and Acheulean are known as the Early Stone Age or Lower Palaeolithic - Human origins o Plio-Pleistocene adaptations o Many different species appear between 2.5-2.8mya – why?  Pleistocene (2.5mya-12kya)  Climate change  Glacial cycles became more severe - Oldowan + Acheulean = early stone age - Major human adaptive shift due to technology and/or climate change o Origins of homo erectus, larger brained than homo erectus o Extremely long-lived o Stone tools o Leaves Africa  Why? Severe fluctuations in climate, increase in herbivores, development in tools and technology o Complex tool tradition (Acheulean) - Homo ergaster o Early forms of Homo erectus o Associated with Oldowan tools Week Seven - 3 hypotheses for modern human origins: - Complete replacement (out of Africa) o Neanderthal populations in Europe were replaced by invading populations of modern humans o AMHS (anatomically modern Homo sapiens) arose in Africa ca. 200kya migrated and replaced all archaic Homo living in Europe and Asia o Speciation event o No biological mixture with European forms (eg. Neanderthals) because Africa AMHS were new species o Supported by DNA evidence  Africans have greater genetic diversity than anywhere else  mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA – passed down from mother) from 8 Neanderthals (1997-2004)  very different from AMHS  mtDNA from 9 AMHS (2004)  Similar to modern humans (contamination?)  significantly different from Neanderthal DNA - Regional continuity (multiregional) o Neanderthals evolved locally into modern humans as the result of continuous gene flow between European and African populations o Local populations evolved into regionally distinct AMHS o Gene flow between prevented speciation o Founding population not from Africa o Essentially falsified - Assimi
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