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Psychology Exam Summary.docx

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Trent University
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psychology Exam Summary The Early Development of Language Guideline Example First few months Babies cry and coo; they respond to emotions and rhythms in voices 4 – 6 months Babies begin to recognize key vowel and consonant sounds of their native language 6 months – 1 year Infants’ familiarity with the sound structure of their native language increases and they can distinguish words from the flow of speech End of first year Infants start to name things based on familiar concepts and use symbolic gestures to communicate 18 – 24 months Children begin to speak in two and three-word phrases and understand verbs from the context in which they occur 2 – 6 years Children rapidly acquire new words, inferring their meaning from the grammatical and social contexts in which they hear them Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Stages - According to Piaget, as children develop, their minds constantly adapt to new situations and experiences. Sometimes they assimilate new information into their existing mental categories - Children must change their mental categories to accommodate their new experiences - Both processes are constantly interacting - From birth to age 2, babies are in the sensorimotor stage - The infant learns through concrete actions; thinking consists of coordinating sensory information with bodily movements - A major accomplishment at this stage is object permanence - From ages 2 – 7, the child’s use of symbols and language accelerates – the preoperational stage - He believed children still lack the cognitive abilities necessary for understanding abstract principles and mental operations - A preoperational child knows that Jessie is his sister, but he may not get the reverse operation, the idea that he is Jessie’s brother - Their thinking is egocentric - Preoperational children cannot grasp the concept of conservation - From about ages 7 – 12, children become increasingly able to take other people’s perspectives and make fewer logical errors. Piaget called this the concrete operations stage because he thought children’s mental abilities are tied to information that is concrete - They come to understand the principles of conservation, reversibility, and cause and effect. They learn mental operations, they are able to categorize things - At age 12-13 to adulthood, people become capable of abstract reasoning and enter the formal operations stage - They can thing about future possibilities, search systematically for answers to problems, and draw logical conclusions - New reasoning abilities depend on the emergence of previous ones: 1. Cognitive abilities develop in continuous, overlapping waves rather than discrete steps or stages 2. Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought 3. Children, even infants, reveal cognitive abilities much earlier than Piaget believed possible
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