Ag studies Midterm #1
Lecture: Emergence in Agriculture (One of the following) (/15)
1. Which 'founder crops' and which animals were domesticated where?
Eastern US: Sunflower, Goosefoot
Mesoamerica: Corn, Beans, Squash, Turkey
The Andes: Potatoes, Manioc
China: Millet, Rice, Pig
Fertile Crescent: Wheat Barley, Sheep, Goat, Cattle
Sahel: Sorghum, Rice, Cattle
Ethiopia: Cotton, Tef
Tropical West Africa: yams, oil Palm
New Guinea, Taro, Banana
2. Which characteristics were necessary in animals in order for them to be
useful for herders and farmers?
Efficient conversion of food to biomass, not too picky on plant selection.
Fast growth rate.
Can't have a dangerous or unpredictable deposition.
Can't be too easy to panic in the event of a predator invading.
Social structure- herds were easier to catch then solitary animals.
3. Explain how “East-West” spread of food production is encouraged, and why
the “North-South” spread of food production is more difficult?
East-West is encouraged because:
o Same latitude
o Same deceases (rainfall, temp)
o Same growth condition and plant evolution
North-south is difficult:
o Temperature ranges
o Rainfall varies
o Seasonality changes more abrupt
o Growing hours change.
4. Describe transition from Hunter-Gatherers to Farmer
Food producers before they became sedentary
o Seasonal camps became permanent when storage was encouraged
Sedentary food producers
o Lived at same place while land remained productive
Technological advancements made the land more productive 5. What does “domestication of plants” mean? Use on crop and explain how it
was changed and which characteristics were changed.
Growing a plant and thereby, consciously or unconsciously causing it to
change genetically from its wild ancestor in ways of making it useful to
o Chosen for certain characteristics, then bred for those characteristics
Ability of kernel to stay in head- so it would not shell out
All students have to answer the following question: (/25)
The following 2 diagrams show the factors influencing agriculture in a
subsistence farming society, and in a market economy. Based on these
a) Explain which factors influenced the development of agriculture in a
subsistence farming society, and how they interacted to determine the
area exploited for farming.
Farming technique Enviornment
b) Describe the additional factors in influencing agricultural production in
a market economy and discuss how they influenced which commodities
were produced in W.Europe Early European Agriculture 500 A.D-1850 A.D (Two of following, /15 ea.)
1. What were the technological improvements under the Manorial
Three field system of rotation
New farm implements; heavy plow or moldboard
Non-strangulating horse collar
Water-mill th th
2. Explain the reasons for the early Enclosures in England 13 -14
century. Explain the reasons for the 2 ndprocess of Enclosure 17 -18h th
century in England.
1 - was due to pasture land for mainly sheep, as populations declined.
o Foreign demand for wool increased the production of sheep.
2 -Enclosures are the means of making land into the private sector,
not the commonly owned land.
o Inflation of prices lead to a infringement on land owners
wealth leading them to want to be more efficient with land
usage- making them want to enclose the land toe be their own.
3. The following are three main types of plows sued in Medieval Europe.
A) Explain how each plow is used
Scratch plows; increased soil depth. Breaks up narrow strip of soil
and cuts a shallow drill, leaving intervening strops undisturbed.
Not useful for new land. Loamy or sandy soils where it is thin.
Drawn by animals
Moldboard plow useful in less fertile areas. Turns the soil while
cutting it. Horses run it. The board is made into a triangle shape,
allowing the soil to be lifted up, and turned when the device is in
the ground. Much faster work.
B) Explain how the moldboard plow was an improvements over the
The moldboard is able to turn the solid, where a scratch only cut
Moldboard cut a larger section of land, making it more time
The soil from one farrow is uprooted to another farrow line,