Ag Studies Midterm #1

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Agricultural Studies
AGST 1000
Henning Bjourlund

Ag studies Midterm #1 Lecture: Emergence in Agriculture (One of the following) (/15) 1. Which 'founder crops' and which animals were domesticated where?  Eastern US: Sunflower, Goosefoot  Mesoamerica: Corn, Beans, Squash, Turkey  The Andes: Potatoes, Manioc  China: Millet, Rice, Pig  Fertile Crescent: Wheat Barley, Sheep, Goat, Cattle  Sahel: Sorghum, Rice, Cattle  Ethiopia: Cotton, Tef  Tropical West Africa: yams, oil Palm  New Guinea, Taro, Banana 2. Which characteristics were necessary in animals in order for them to be useful for herders and farmers?  Efficient conversion of food to biomass, not too picky on plant selection.  Fast growth rate.  Mating habits.  Can't have a dangerous or unpredictable deposition.  Can't be too easy to panic in the event of a predator invading.  Social structure- herds were easier to catch then solitary animals. 3. Explain how “East-West” spread of food production is encouraged, and why the “North-South” spread of food production is more difficult?  East-West is encouraged because: o Same latitude o Same deceases (rainfall, temp) o Same growth condition and plant evolution  North-south is difficult: o Temperature ranges o Rainfall varies o Seasonality changes more abrupt o Growing hours change. 4. Describe transition from Hunter-Gatherers to Farmer  Food producers before they became sedentary o Seasonal camps became permanent when storage was encouraged  Sedentary food producers o Lived at same place while land remained productive  Technological advancements made the land more productive 5. What does “domestication of plants” mean? Use on crop and explain how it was changed and which characteristics were changed.  Growing a plant and thereby, consciously or unconsciously causing it to change genetically from its wild ancestor in ways of making it useful to human consumers.  Wheat o Chosen for certain characteristics, then bred for those characteristics  Standibility  Ability of kernel to stay in head- so it would not shell out  Plump seeds  Maturity date All students have to answer the following question: (/25) The following 2 diagrams show the factors influencing agriculture in a subsistence farming society, and in a market economy. Based on these diagrams: a) Explain which factors influenced the development of agriculture in a subsistence farming society, and how they interacted to determine the area exploited for farming.  The environment  Population  Farming technique Enviornment Livestock  Exploited area  Livestock  Manure Population Exploited Manure area Farming techniue b) Describe the additional factors in influencing agricultural production in a market economy and discuss how they influenced which commodities were produced in W.Europe Early European Agriculture 500 A.D-1850 A.D (Two of following, /15 ea.) 1. What were the technological improvements under the Manorial System?  Three field system of rotation  New farm implements; heavy plow or moldboard  Work-horse  Non-strangulating horse collar  Horse shoes  Water-mill th th 2. Explain the reasons for the early Enclosures in England 13 -14 century. Explain the reasons for the 2 ndprocess of Enclosure 17 -18h th century in England.  1 - was due to pasture land for mainly sheep, as populations declined. o Foreign demand for wool increased the production of sheep.  2 -Enclosures are the means of making land into the private sector, not the commonly owned land. o Inflation of prices lead to a infringement on land owners wealth leading them to want to be more efficient with land usage- making them want to enclose the land toe be their own. 3. The following are three main types of plows sued in Medieval Europe. A) Explain how each plow is used  Scratch plows; increased soil depth. Breaks up narrow strip of soil and cuts a shallow drill, leaving intervening strops undisturbed. Not useful for new land. Loamy or sandy soils where it is thin. Drawn by animals  Moldboard plow useful in less fertile areas. Turns the soil while cutting it. Horses run it. The board is made into a triangle shape, allowing the soil to be lifted up, and turned when the device is in the ground. Much faster work. B) Explain how the moldboard plow was an improvements over the scratch plow  The moldboard is able to turn the solid, where a scratch only cut the soil.  Moldboard cut a larger section of land, making it more time efficient.  The soil from one farrow is uprooted to another farrow line, mak
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