ALES204 study notes2.doc

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Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences
Van Duesen

ALES 204 Study Notes Exam 1 Unit 1: Introduction to Communication: Business Communication; conforms to your audiences expectations (of medium, format, style and tone) - to meet the audience’s needs as effectively as possible, has 3 purposes- to inform, to request or persuade, and to build goodwill What Makes a Message Effective; clear, concise, comprehensive, complete and correct Five Kinds of Audiences; initial, primary, secondary, gatekeeper, and watchdog Initial: first to receive message, may assign message Primary: decides whether to accept recommendations, acts on message Secondary: comments on or implements message Gatekeeper: has power to stop message before it reaches primary audience Watchdog: has social, economic or political power, may base future actions on message “Noise” that can affect communication; attitude, culture, experience, gender, skill, meaning, education, intelligence, health, interest, vocabulary, bias Channel; how the communication travels eg. dialogue, tv, radio, computer Frame of Reference; point of view Unit 2: Small Groups & Organizations Sending Emails; Use PAIBOC Give all necessary info Organize to meet readers needs Revise for clarity and conciseness Compose subject line last Make time to proofread Hierarchy; relationship structure in an organization- pyramid shaped, everyone is subordinate except leader Advantages to Hierarchy Disadvantages to Hierarchy communication flow communication difficulties coordination “silos”- communication barriers responsibility & authority slow to change Upward Communication; you to boss eg. progress report, unsolved problems, suggestions for improvement Lateral Communication; you to coworker eg. coordination, problem solving, info sharing, conflict resolution Downward Communication; you to subordinate eg. instructions and priorities, rationale, feed back, corporate culture Listening; decoding and interpreting both verbal and non-verbal symbol, as the speaker intends them *good listeners listen for feelingsAND facts* *when active listening, receivers demonstrate that they’ve heard and understood by feed back to the speaker either the literal meaning, the emotional content, or both * Strategies for active response; Paraphrase the content Mirror the speaker’s feelings State your own feelings Ask for info/ clarification Ask how you can help 3 types of communication in Groups; Informational messages: focus on content Procedural messages: focus on method and process Interpersonal messages: focus on people 4 Stages of group work; Orientation, formation, coordination and formalization 3 Types of group leaders; informational, interpersonal, and procedural Groupthink; a tendency for groups to put such a high premium on agreement that they punish dissent- counteract by brainstorming and encouraging disagreement 4 Types of decision making; Authoritative, consultative, voting, and consensual SWOTAnalysis; a detailed analysis of an organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Strengths &Weaknesses: internal to a company, can be changed Opportunities & Threats: external to a company, cannot be changed Primary Research; new information Secondary Research; retrieving information that someone else has gathered *Boolean Search is when you use brackets around terms* Analyzing information; use reputable sources: university sites, established companies look for an author: credentials? do they take “ownership”? look for the date check the source compare with other sources Surveying & Interviews; define your population identify demographic random sample: each person in pop.theoretically has an equal chance of being chosen convenience sample: a group of responders who are easy to reach judgement sample; a group whose views seem useful *phrase survey/interview questions clearly, don’t lead the responder to an answer* *use concrete, measurable, quantitative language* *avoid closed (yes or no) questions UNLESS potentially embarrassing topic* Analyzing interview/survey data; look for patterns differentiate between correlation and causation causation: one thing causes or produces another correlation: 2 things happen at the same time, one MIGHT cause the other but both might be caused by a 3rd thing Summarizing documents; pre-read/skim/scan identify & analyze find purpose & intended audience find thesis/ main idea analyze concluding paragraph find topic sentence look for evidence re-read document ask peer/friend to check summary against original add anything relevant Summarizing oral communication; listen for understanding pre-read on topic use PAIBOC identify speaker’s purpose identify thesis listen for evidence listen for points of emphasis listen for the “close” read supplementary material jot down overview add relevant info ask for clarification Paraphrasing/ documenting sources; write a précis when you paraphrase & summarize must credit original source useAPAor MLAformat *must credit source even when you put into your own words* Direct messages; provide information that you expect will please the audience or that you expect them to respond neutrally to- have primary & underlying purposes Primary purposes; to give information or good news to the reader, to have the reader “hear” the message, to deemphasize negative elements Underlying purposes; to build good image of writer, to build good image of the organization, to initiate or build a good writer-client realationship Types of informative/positive messages; Confirmations: should be brief, give information that was previously shared orally, start by indicating that it is a confirmation eg. “As we discussed yesterday...” Summaries: list who was present, what was discussed & decided, who does what next, start w/ main point Instructions: use placement language, instructions for complicated procedures require diagrams Adjustments & Complaint responses: when granting a request, say so in first line- give reason for original mistake ONLY if it reflects credit on the company Thank You & Congratulatory notes: acknowledge a person’s contribution, prompt & short, be specific to sound sincere Organizing informative & positive messages; Give good news & summarize main points give details, clarifications & background present negative elements as positively as possible explain any reader benefits use a good will ending thats positive, personal & forward-looking Negative messages; contain information that will cost the reader comfort- have primary & secondary purposes Primary purposes; to give the reader bad news, have the reader understand/ accept & maintain as much goodwill as possible Secondary purposes; let the reader know they have been taken seriously, show them your decision is fair & show them how they would make the same decision were they in your postion Types of negative messages; Rejections & refusals: try to use a buffer, politeness & length help, be courteous *a buffer is a neutral statement you use to delay the negative* * DO NOT use a buffer if; the reader might ignore, if “bottom-line” messages are preferred, or if reader “won’t take no” * make reason for refusal clear avoid criticizing policy avoid saying you cannot do something offer the reader an alternative to get their way (enables reader to reestablish psychological freedom) Psychological reactance; when people respond to a limitation of freedom by asserting their freedom in another way Giving bad news to superiors; describe the problem tell how it happened describe options to fix it recommend solution and ask for action Giving bad news to peers or subordinates; describe the problem present an alternative or compromise if possible, ask for input or action Unit 3:Audiences & Interpersonal Communication Self - Concept; how you think & feel about yourself- based on culture & values of your community, also from communication with others 3 Elements of self-concept; 1. Reflected appraisals: we are not born with identity, people around us shape who we are- we are given scripts to speak, manners, expectations etc positive reflected appraisals= good self-concept, negative reflected appraisals= poor self-concept 2. Social comparisons: the way you see yourself compared to your peers, also from mass media (magazines, toys etc), the “ideal look” or “ideal” way to be 3. Self- Perception: the way you see yourself, comes from experiences , your own view of your ability to carry out a task, state of mind impacts preformance *men and women gain self-concept differently* * men value social comparison more, while women value reflected appraisals* Psychological safety; the approval & support we get from familiar people, ideas & situations Psychological risk; taking a chance on something new- IMPROVES SELF-CONCEPT Perception; how you look at others & the world around you Deletions; blocking out or erasing information (affects perception) Distortion; twisting or bending information (affects perception) Generalization; drawing principles or conclusions from particular evidence or facts (affects perception) Perceptual filters; limitations that result from the narrowed way we view the world eg. values, needs, goals, interests, beliefs, attitudes, expectations, wants, knowledge, feelings, language, education Adjusting to perceptual filters; stay healthy & well rested avoid hasty conclusions take more time be available be committed be prepared to change Confirmation bias; we only see evidence of things that confirm what we already believe Lake wobegon effect;
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