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Unit Tests Ch. 1-5.pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHR101
Professor
Dan Syrotuik
Semester
Fall

Description
Unit Tests Ch. 1-5 September-19-12 7:55 AM Chapter 1 Test 1. Which of the following is a definition of basic research? statistical support of a theory research driven by curiosity repetitive tests of a theory research driven by compassion 2. A group of anthropologists (including linguists, archaeologists, paleoanthropologists, and climatologists) comes together to study an ancient Mayan calendar. What does this group’s assembly most demonstrate? the scientific orientation the anthropological curiosity the holistic nature of anthropology the scope of anthropology 3. What is usually the last step in testing a theory? determining and measuring the sample defining the variables confirming or rejecting the theory evaluating the data 4. What is paleoanthropology? the discovery and study of ancient human artifacts the study of the prehistoric earth the study of human evolution the study of how and why contemporary human populations differ biologically 5. Why does the author cite the Mayan temple of Chichén Itzá along with broken pottery and garbage heaps? to illustrate the variety of artifacts archaeologists study to describe how Mayans lived to demonstrate which artifacts give more information to demonstrate which artifacts have lasted longest 6. What is usually the first step in testing a theory? confirming or rejecting the theory determining and measuring the sample defining the variables evaluating the data 7. Examine Table 1.1 on page 17. What could be done to improve the statistical significance of Whiting’s findings? remeasure the 27 societies with low protein and long sex taboos remeasure the 20 societies with low protein and short sex taboos remeasure the 47 societies with high protein and short sex taboos remeasure the 25 societies with medium protein and long sex taboos 8. What is the value of anthropology in today’s world? It gives us confidence that no matter what we do to the environment, we will find a way to survive. It produces models of the best cultures and societies. It provides inside information about our political enemies. It helps us understand each other in an increasingly interconnected world. 9. What negative message might a powerful country convey when it tries to help other countries? the message that humanity is powerless the message that the future is hopeless the message that it wants a violent confrontation the message that it thinks the other countries are inferior 10. Why does the author include the example of North Americans’ changing to live more like San people of the Kalahari Dessert in South Africa? to demonstrate how anthropology can help people solve their personal problems to illustrate how anthropology helps people live better lives to give an example of how anthropology helps avoid misunderstandings between peoples to illustrate how anthropology helps end violence between cultures 11. What are the two types of explanations that are sought in science? customs and observations observations and theories associations and theories actions and associations 12. Read the Applied Anthropology box on page 9. Which type of anthropology did Anita Spring begin in the 1980s? historical linguistics epidemiology basic ethnology research applied ethnography research 13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist? ANTH 101 Page 1 13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist? How were the first cave paintings produced? Can chimpanzees learn sign language? Why do we give wedding presents? Does God exist? 14. Why would paleoanthropologists study plant and animal populations? to help present-day humans interact better with their environment to clarify human evolutionary relationships to give present-day humans a sense of their shared past and connection with the environment to see how early humans compared to other species 15. Dr. Samson wants to compare health habits among contemporary island populations in the South Pacific. How is he MOST likely to do this? He will most likely examine physical and written artifacts concerning health from each island. He will most likely gather ethnographer accounts from different populations and look for patterns. He will most likely construct statistical data on the physical environments of each island. He will most likely conduct his own ethnography research with each population and look for patterns. 16. Examine the photo and its caption on page 6. Why are archaeologists studying this site? to preserve the information before the site is destroyed to test theories about human evolution to help the present population living around it to demonstrate both humanity’s humility and confidence 17. What makes Anthropology a holistic science? Anthropologists are mainly interested in the big picture, rather than specifics. Anthropologists integrate information about many facets of human experience. There is little specialization within the field. Anthropology focuses on traditional practices, such as holistic medicine. 18. Which is an essential question that all anthropologists ask? How do these studies affect and assist the population being studied? How does a given artifact support or negate a theory about human development? What are the typical characteristics of human groups? How and why do populations organize themselves differently around the globe and throughout the ages? 19. Examine the photo and its caption on page 13. Why does the author include this image in this section of the chapter? to illustrate how thermometers work to illustrate that anthropology is both a physical and a social science to illustrate how cold snow is to illustrate how anthropologists must work in many types of climates 20. Which of the following fields is most likely to include applied anthropologists? archaeology descriptive linguistics ethnohistory paleoanthropology 21. What is the scientific orientation toward knowledge? that it is uncertain that it is understandable that it is unknowable that it is absolute 22. Explanations of human behavior and variation should __________. make intuitive sense be supported by evidence reflect the absolute truth incorporate the researcher’s biases 23. Which types of anthropologists study the origins of human language? linguists only ethnologists and archaeologist applied anthropologists and cultural anthropologists biological anthropologists and linguists 24. Dr. Amini notes that in one society, only men plant yams, whereas women plant and harvest all other vegetables. What is Dr. Amini’s study an example of? a statistical association an observation a theory an explanation 25. How does applied or practical anthropology relate to the other fields of anthropology? It cuts across them. It distinguishes each one. It excludes them. It ties them all together. ******************************************************************************************* Chapter 2 Test ANTH 101 Page 2 Chapter 2 Test 1. How are ethnographers related to ethnohistorians? They use the exact same research methods. They use all of the same sources of evidence. Ethnographers provide data for future ethnohistorians. Ethnographers provide data for past ethnohistorians. 2. Read the New Perspectives on Gender box. How can knowledge about gender roles be recovered? by studying where people lived (e.g., closer or further from food sources) by studying what people ate (e.g., how much protein their diets contained) by comparing materials from today that are associated with particular genders by finding, recording, and analyzing materials associated with gender 3. Why is cross-cultural research more generally applicable than regional studies? because the specific sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative because ethnographical research is more reliable than data analysis because the random sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative because data analysis is more reliable than ethnographical research 4. What are indicator artifacts? specimens that are representative of a regional culture specimens that establish a strata for relative dating minerals that decompose, indicating absolute dating minerals that were typically used for lithics 5. Why do you think context is so important in archaeological research? Objects are more visually appealing when placed in a natural context. It is only with all the contextual pieces in place that we can know the true meaning of an object from the past. Context gives information as to how and why the object was created and used. Without context, it is impossible to accurately date an object. 6. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to create an ethical dilemma for an ethnographer? Witnessing ritual practices of homosexuality. Returning to the field to conduct a follow-up study a decade later. An invitation to the wedding of a key informant’s enemy. Being asked to be god-parent to the chief’s new son. 7. Examine the photo and caption on page 28. What step in the research process are these anthropologists most likely conducting? recording horizontal and vertical levels excavation pedestrian survey curating artifacts 9. How do features relate to ecofacts? Features may include ecofacts. Ecofacts indicate features. Ecofacts determine features. Features are made up of ecofacts. 10. If you discovered what looked like a Homo habilis fossil, which dating technique(s) would you choose? Radiocarbon dating and relative dating. Radiocarbon dating only. Relative dating and potassium-argon dating. Potassium-argon dating and radiocarbon dating. 11. In which area would we most likely find fossils? a bog the ocean floor a rain forest a limestone quarry 12. What is paradoxical about archaeology? Archaeologists use other specimens to relatively date artifacts and use minerals to absolutely date them. Archaeologists must be subjective participants and objective observers. History is most important to archaeologists, yet they focus on artifacts rather than written documents. Context is most important to archaeologists, yet they destroy context during excavation. 13. Examine Table 2.1. An epidemiologist is studying the recent eradication of smallpox from the face of the earth. Where on the chart would this anthropologist’s study fall? Worldwide sample, Nonhistorical Regional, Nonhistorical Worldwide sample, Historical Single case, Historical 14. How are ethical dilemmas similar for ethnographers and archaeologists? They both are obligated to report honestly. They both need to be aware of looting. They both need to be aware of gift giving. They are both likely to affect context. ANTH 101 Page 3 They are both likely to affect context. 15. A museum curator creates a display of pots of similar use and period but from different regions. What has the curator paid little heed to? temporal unity history society context 16. Why would an anomaly in the Earth’s magnetic field be of interest to archaeologists? It suggests that a meteorite may have destroyed the site. It could indicate the presence of an archaeological site. It indicates that the artifacts have been magnetized. It is evidence of a dramatic climate change in the past. 17. Examine the diagram on page 32. Where does carbon change into nitrogen? in the sky in the tree in the ground in the water 18. Examine the photo and caption on page 28. How can these anthropologists best preserve the context of this site? by recording the horizontal and vertical locations by not excavating it through remote sensing through pedestrian survey 19. Examine the photo and its caption on page 23. What type of research is Margaret Kieffer most likely conducting? cross-cultural comparisons pedestrian survey remote sensing participant-observation 20. Which of the following is an example of an artifact found in conjunction with an ecofact? An animal bone found near a patch of burnt earth. A mosaic floor covered with volcanic ash. A bronze sword laying next to a human skull. A clay pottery shard coated with wheat pollen. 21. Which of the following is the best way to resolve the ethical issues involved in excavating a burial ground? Avoid excavating burial grounds and focus on the surrounding area. Meet with the descendants of those buried to see if there are ways to conduct the research respectfully. Promise to reinter the human remains and artifacts after they have been fully studied. Do not become distracted by local superstitions and continue with your research. 22. What assumption is made when using the stratigraphic dating technique? The layers were formed naturally and are uniform around the world. Absolute dating methods would not work on the sample. Objects found in deeper layers are older. The older the artifact, the more degraded it will be. 23. Why might an anthropologist conceal the name of the community that he/she studied? People studied are generally proud of their culture. Geographic information is usually important to studies. Informants generally wish to remain anonymous. People can usually figure out where anthropologists were studying. 24. What are the advantages of pedestrian survey? It requires no equipment and little training, yet it can yield great results. It is the most widely and longest practiced, so it is the most effective in finding sites. It can be done anywhere by anyone, advancing anthropological research significantly. It is simple, cheap, and effective in revealing surface elements. 25. Examine
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