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ANTHR 101 Complete Notes for the course

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Anthropology 101 Friday September 6th 2013Chapter 1 What is Anthropology page 218Vocabulary anthropologythe study of human nature human society and the human pastholisma characteristic of the anthropological perspective that describes at the highest and most inclusive level how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activitiescomparisona characteristic of the anthropological perspectivethat requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature human society or the human pastevolutiona characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature human society or the human past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over timeculturesets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society Human beings use culture to adapt to and to transform the world in which they livebiocultural organismsorganisms in this case human beings whose defining feature are codetermined by biological and cultural forcesracessocial groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences racismthe systematic oppression of one or more socially defined races by another socially defined racethat is justified in terms of the supposed inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rulebiological anthropology or physical anthropologythe specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make them different from other organisms and what characteristics they shareprimatologythe study of nonhuman primates the closet living relatives of human beingspaleoanthropologythe search for fossilized remains of humanitys earliest ancestorscultural anthropology the speciality of anthropology that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of societythat is by culturesexobservable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans females and males needed for biological reproductiongenderthe cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sexparticipant observationa method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying while participating in their lives as much as possible field workan extended period of close involvement with people in whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested during which anthropologists ordinarily collect more of their datainformantspeople in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insight about their way of life ethnographyan anthropologists written or filmed description of a particular culture ethnologythe comparative study of two or more cultureslanguagethe system of arbitrary vocal symbols used to encode ones experience of the world and of otherslinguistic anthropologythe speciality of anthropology concerned with the study of human languagesarchaeologya cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind by earlier societiesAnthropology 101applied anthropologists specialists who use information gathered from the other anthropological specialities to solve practical crossculture problemsmedical anthropologythe speciality of anthropology that concerns itself with human healththe factors that contribute to disease or illness and the ways that human populations deal with diseLecture NotesAnthropology the study of human nature human society and the human pastAnthropologists study human societies cultures and physical diversity across time and space By asking basic questionsHow did we originate as a speciesHow have we changed physically and culturallyWhat makes us the sameWhat makes us differentthe study of human kind human accomplishment in the past and present Anthropology is HolisticAnthropologists integrate all that is known about humans their activities ComparativeAnthropologists examine similarities and differences between human societies Field BasedAnthropologists collect data from direct contact with people sites or animals Evolutionary Anthropologists examine biological and cultural change in humans over time What is CultureCulture the full range of learned human behavior patternsCulture isCulture consists of beliefs traditions customs and ideas that humans learn as members of society Humans adapt to and transform the world around them using culture Cultures are diverse through time and space Humans are bicultural organisms Subfields of AnthropologyTraditionalBiological AnthropologyCultural AnthropologyLinguistic AnthropologyArchaeology EmergingApplied AnthropologyMedical AnthropologyVisual AnthropologyDevelopmental AnthropologyUrban AnthropologyBiological AnthropologyBegan as an attempt to define distinct human races Views the race concept as invalid today Examines human biological variation across time and spaceAnthropology 101 Considers how the interplay between culture and human biology has changed as we evolved to become modern humansFocuses on biological variation and diversity among modern humans and nonhuman primates and their extinct ancestorsBiological anthropology includesBiological Anthropologists PrimatologistsPaleoanthropologistsForensic AnthropologistsDraws upon scientific methods to analyze human remains and behavior in a holistic mannerpaleoanthropology human biology and variation primatology most closely related to the natural sciencesCultural AnthropologyCultural anthropologists explore cultural diversity among all living societies including our ownCultural anthropologists study how humans organize themselvesMaterial cultureLearned customs and behavioursUses ethnography and ethnology to study human societies to explain cultural similarities and differences Emerged in the 19th century building on observations made by early explorers and missionariesStudy issues such asKinshipPolitical OrganizationGender and Sexuality GlobalizationImmigrationUrbanizationEthnicityHuman RightsCompare aspects of different cultures kinship social organization material life technology subsistence and economics worldview ethnographyscientific description of one culture ethnologythe comparative study of two or more culturesCulture anthropologists usually participate in the culture they are studying They do not only observe but participate Linguistic AnthropologyStudies language in its cultural contexts to examine diversity among societies Language is a system of arbitrary symbols that enable communication and the transmission of cultural knowledgeLanguage is studied asform of symbolic communication major carrier of cultural informationSociolinguists study how variation in language use relates to differences in gender race class or ethnicityHistorical Linguists reconstruct the historical development of languages and study language variation through timeSalvage Linguistics
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