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ANTHR 207 Complete Notes for the course

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHR207
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Anthropology 207Monday January 6th 2013Introduction First Day of Classes What is AnthropologyThe world in which you were born is just one model of reality Other cultures are not failed attempts at being you they are unique manifestations of the human spiritWade Davis Defining Anthropology Anthropology explores human societies cultures and physical diversity across time and spaceAnthropologists ask basic questions like How did we originate as a speciesHow have we changed physically and culturallyHow are we still changing What Is Anthropology and Why Should We Teach It Social AgilityObservation Analysis and PlanningSocial SensitivityAccuracy in Interpreting BehaviourAbility to Challenge ConclusionInsightful Interpretation of InformationSimplification ContextualizationProblem SolvingPersuasive WritingAssumption of a Social Perspective httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvsMFsgPy1H5M Wednesday January 8th 2013Chapter 1 The Anthropological Perspective PPt 2 Vocabulary page 323 anthropologythe integrated study of human nature human society and human history applied anthropologythe use of information gathered from the other anthropological specialities the other anthropological specialities to solve practical problems within and between cultures archaeologythe speciality of anthropology interested in what we can learn from material remains left behind by earlier human societies bicultural organismorganisms in this case human beings whose defining features are codetermined by biological and cultural factors biological evolutionevolution of the resources of human development provided by our genes and other elements that make up our physical bodiesbiological anthropology physical anthropologythe speciality of anthropology that looks at humans as a biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make us different from andor similar to other living thingscoevolutionthe relationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes in which each makes up an important of the environment to which the other must adapt comparativea characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in a wide a range of human societies before generalizing about human nature human society or human history cultural anthropologythe speciality of anthropology that studies how variation in beliefs and behaviours is shaped by culture and learned by different members of human groups cultural evolutionevolution of the beliefs and behaviours we incorporate into human development through the experiences of teaching and learning cultural relativismthe perspective that all cultures are equally valid and can only be truly understood in their own terms culturesets of learned behaviours and ideas that humans acquire as members of a society We use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which we live determinismthe philosophical view that one simple force or a few simple forces causes or determines complex events dualismthe philosophical view that reality consists of two equal and irreducible forces essencean unchanging core of features that is unique to things of the same kind whether they are chairs cows ideas or people and makes them what they are 1Anthropology 207ethnocentrismthe opinion that ones own way of life is the most natural correct or fully human way of life ethnographyan anthropologists written or filmed description of a particular culture ethnologythe comparative study of two or more culturesevolutionarya characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature human society or human history in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time holisma perspective on the human condition that assumes that mind and body individual and society and individual and environment interpenetrate and even define one another human agencyhuman beings ability to exercise at least some control over their lives idealismthe philosophical view dating back as far as Plato in Western thought that ideasor the mind that produces such ideasconstitute the essence of human natureinformantspeople in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life also called respondents teacher or friends languagethe system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experiences of the world and of one another linguistic anthropologythe speciality of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages materialismthe philosophical view that the activities of our physical bodies in the material world constitute the essence of human nature paleoanthropologythe study of fossilized remains of of human beings earliest ancestors primatologythe study of nonhuman primates the closest living relatives of human beings racessocial groupings that allegedly reflected biological differences racismthe systematic oppression of members of one or more socially defined races by members of another socially defined race that is justified within the ruling society by the rulers faulty belief in their own biological superiority symbolsomething that stands for something else OutlineDefining AnthropologyExplanations of the Human ConditionThe Anthropological Perspective The CrossDisciplinary DisciplineBiological Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Applied Anthropology Anthropology and the Concept of CulturesAnthropology and culture VS Cultures What Anthropology is Notthere is no one correct map of the worldphysical and imaginary boundaries that are always changingin large and small scale levelseg one this map Europe seems to be in the center of the world showing a Eurocentric perspective most likely because a European made the mapRobinson Projectionwidely accepted map of the world Defining Anthropology Anthropology explores human societies cultures and physical diversity across time and spaceAnthropologists ask basic questions like How did we originate as a speciesHow have we changed physically and culturallyHow are we still changing Anthropologythe study of human nature human society and the human pastdefinition from ANTHR1012Anthropology 207Why Should We Teach AnthropologySocial AgilityObservation Analysis and PlanningSocial SensitivityAccuracy in Interpreting BehaviourAbility to Challenge ConclusionInsightful Interpretation of InformationSimplification ContextualizationProblem SolvingPersuasive WritingAssumption of a Social Perspective So we ask questions and create new knowledge Humans are diverse creatures we have to adapt to solve problemsExplanation of the Human ConditionI think therefore I amDualism mind and bodydeeply rooted in Western thoughtgoing back to Platoeg woman VS man black VS whiteThese are the easiest answers AmbiguityIdealism reduces human nature or ideas that produce themMaterialismreduces things to small objects all events are caused by things that happened before them and that there is no real choice or control Determinism Essence properties that characterize somethingHolism objects and environments interpenetrate with each other and are linked so they define each other Coevolution change of a biological object in relation to another The Anthropologists Perspective Is Holistic tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activitiesmindbodyComparative compare to other cultures etc Field Based observation and participation Evolutionary biological and culture processes and their changes throughout time 3
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