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ANTHR219 (1)


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Katie Biittner

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ANTH 219 – PART 1&2 STUDY GUIDE LECTURE 1: WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? - What is Anthropology? o The study of humans o Encompasses all varieties of peoples and cultures in all time periods o Global and comprehensive - Four fields of Anthropology o Biological Anthropology – paleoanth, human biology o Cultural Anthropology – social organization, technology, economic o Archaeology – prehistoric arch, historical arch o Linguistic Anthropology - Archaeology o Study of the past via material remains; artifacts, features, ecofacts, fossils - Biological Anthropology o Study of human (primate) biology and evolution - Linguistic Anthropology o Study of language in relation to cultural, historical and biological contexts o Language as unique to humans - Cultural Anthropology o Study of human diversity o Focused on learned behavior and ideas that humans acquire in society o Culture - Applied Anthropology o “Action Anthropology” o The application of anthropological knowledge to create solutions to real world problems - Cultural Relativism o Concept that cultural practices varies from each group depending on the particular societies beliefs LECTURE 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ARCHAEOLOGY - Research Design o Ensures data/research is organized, efficient, and valid o Steps;  Defines a problem, where to look and what type of data to collect  Obtaining permission, obtaining funding, acquiring equipment and supplies, recruiting staff and excavators  Data acquisition, survey and excavation  Data analysis  Data interpretation  Publication - Material Culture o Artifacts  Anything made, used, or modified by humans  Lithic/stone tools, pottery/ceramics, metallurgy  Portable o Ecofacts  Natural objects used by humans  Pollen/plant remains, animal/faunal remains, human remains, insect remains, organic or environmental remains - Excavation o Yields most reliable evidence  Human activities at a particular time period  Changes in activities from a horizontal view of time o Two goals  Recover as much evidence as possible  Digging  Screening (dry & wet)  Flotation  Control provenience (location) of evidence & record with precision – record changes o Horizontal excavation – horizontal & vertical o Vertical excavation – deep open area/trenching methods o Context  Location where artifacts are found  Consists of an artifact’s provenience, matrix, and association - Formation of the Archaeological Record o Sites are created through combination of cultural and natural processes – taphonomy - Preservation o Type of evidence is determined by; matrix (surrounding material), climate (local and regional) o Inorganic materials  Better preservation  Metal, glass, pottery, textiles o Organic Materials  Preservation varies depending on material, context, and matrix  Very cold or very hot better preservers – very dry with little climate change  Caves are best o Unless site has been suddenly buried and everything is perfectly intact then bias is a problem o Doesn’t give a complete picture of what site was used for  Just because it’s not there doesn’t mean it wasn’t before - Dating Techniques o Relative  Indicates if something is younger/older  Comparing  Eg. Pottery o Absolute/Chronometric  Provides actual ages  Usually converted to calendar ages  Deposit cannot be older than date on artifact  Dendrochronology  Creates long sequence to help calibrate radiocarbon record  Can directly date wood, building timbers  Radiocarbon Dating (14C)  1950 = before present – BP  A product of flux in cosmic ray in atmosphere  Reacts with neutrons of Nitrogen 14  During organisms life 14C is replenished  Time of death can be established by calculating when organism ceased exchanging carbon with biosphere  Theory assumes levels of 14C is consistent  ONLY FOR ORGANICS  Two types of dating o Conventional – cheap, need many samples o AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) – expensive  The Three C’s o Contamination – any carbon not an original component of sample in life o Calibration o Correction  Potassium-Argon Dating (K-AR)  Same theory as 14C  Can date rocks 100,000 to millions of years old  Measures decay of 40K to 40AR with half-life of 1.3 billion years  Used to date volcanic rock and ash  Provided evidence of hominids over 2 million years old  Thermoluminescence & Optical Dating  Measures electron trapped  Clock is set to zero when heat (TL) or light (optical) applied  Can be used for pottery or sediment  When no organic material can be used to confirm 14C dates  Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)  Can be used together with luminescence dating  Dates tooth enamel, bone, shell  Less sensitive than Thermoluminescence - Artifacts o Anything made, used, or modified by humans; stone tools, pottery etc o Are portable - Ecofacts o Natural objects used by humans; plants, bones, insects - Fossils o Organic (bone, teeth) tissues replaced by minerals o Impressions - Features o Non-portable artifacts o Walls, burials, hearths, middens (garbage), outhouses - Site o Location where material evidence of significant human activities are preserved o Can be anything from a building to an entire city o How sites are found;  Historic/ethnographic sources  Word of mouth  Survey  Pedestrian survey – walking  Ground trothing  Prospection  Remote sensing  Geophysical - C-Transforms o Cultural processes o All cultural impacts o Constructive C-Transforms  Artifacts can enter archaeological record through deliberate burial  Artifacts can enter archaeological record through unintentional human activity  “Garbage men” of history o Destructive C-Transforms  Ancient people destroyed sites  Modern development  Warfare - N-Transforms o Natural processes  Weather, climate, etc  Volcano eruption, earthquake, rain, termites, glaciers, etc - Absolute/Chronometric Versus Relative Dating Techniques o Absolute/Chronometric Dating  Exact dates  Radiocarbon, Thermoluminescence, Argon-Argon, Potassium-Argon o Relative Dating  Stratigraphic layers  Order of what came first - Seriation o Relative dating technique based on chronological ordering o Contextual Seriation  Based on life-span of artifact style – how they change over time  Can be used to order assemblages in different sites o Frequency Seriation  Based on the idea style becomes popular, reaches peak then decreases  Frequency of artifact styles and one site should be similar at others - Typology o Systematic organization o Products of specific time period have distinctive similar style/design o Changes are gradual/evolutionary o Decoration changes faster than shape  Pottery, metal – quick changes  Stone – slow changes - Stratigraphy o Provides context o Reliable relative chronological sequence for layers o Can help date whole deposit by using association o Law of Superposition  Layers are successively deposited o Law of Original Horizontality  Deposits are laid horizontally  Caused by uplifting or downfall o Principle of Association  Items found in same deposit are essentially same age – caution with heirlooms, treasure o Principle of Reversal  Deposits have been removed and redeposited in reverse – rarely happens o Principle of Intrusion  More recent than deposits - Michael Schiffer o Archaeologist o Named cultural processes C-Transforms and natural processes N- Transforms LECTURE 3: PREHISTORY, HISTORY, AND ARCHAEOLOGY - What is Prehistory? o Human history before written records o Evolution of culture o Old World; Europe, Asia, and Africa  Stone Age – Palaeolithic, Bronze Age – Mesolithic, Iron Age – Neolithic o New World; Americas  Lithic, Archaic, Formative, Classic, Post Classic o History – study of past with written sources o Ethnohistory – when a group writes about another  Ancient Greeks wrote about Celts  Europeans wrote about First Nations - History of Archaeological Thought o First Historians  Nabonidus, Babylon  Thutmose IV, Egypt  Hesiod, Greece  Mayans  Chinese o Aristotle  Fixity of Species  Based on Christianity – All life created by god, doesn’t change  Heiarchy  Great Chain of Being  Organisms ordered from complex to simple o Humans placed on top  First true philosopher of science o Age of Enlightenment  Interest in natural world  Travel – opened minds, challenged ideas  First excavations  Sambucus  Thunderstones  Scientific method  Evolutionism  Physics, gravity, microscope - Advances Which Led to Modern Archaeology o Establishment of Human Antiquity  Geological evidence provided evidence that natural world changes over time  Robert Hook – fossils are remains of past organisms, will provide insight into past life, challenged Fixity of Species  James Hutton – wrote History of the Earth, stratification of rock layers, developed basic principles for excavation, developed Principle of Uniformitarianism  Charles Lyell – supported Hutton’s theory of Earth’s age, confirmed slow process of evolution  Georges Cuvier – Palaeontologist, extensive fossil studies: mammoth bones, concept of extinction, theory of Catastrophism: cataclysmic events shaped world  Jacques Boucher de Perthes – Published first convincing evidence of stone tools in association with extinct animal remains o Development of Evolution  Created theories during this time to explain variation and changes in organisms  Comte de Buffon  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck  Alfred Wallace  Charles Darwin – The Origin of Species (Animals): biological evolution (natural selection), mechanism of gradual change in nature. The Descent of Man (Humans): natural selection in humans - Culture Change o Evolutionary Stages  Unilineal versus Multilineal evolution  Unilineal: all cultures go through same technological stages, theory only took material objects into account, no language  Multilineal:  Direct-Historic Approach  Culture only be understood by comparison to their direct ancestors, Frank Boas  Cannot judge cultures on technology - Main Schools of Thought o New (Processual) Archaeology  Archaeology is Anthropology of the past  Goal to understand and explain culture change processes  Believe human behavior is rational and can be explained  Developed methods to link data to theory  Emphasised cultural evolution  Viewed culture as connected web; environment, technology, social structure, ideology, etc  Scientific approach o Postprocessual Archaeology – rejected scientism of New Archaeology, focused on individual `lived experience`  Hermeneutics: scientists test theories using pre-existing knowledge and questions, open-ended cycle of continual inquiry – allows to re-evaluate pre-existing theories  Reflexive: more about researcher than research  Relativist: all research subjective o Feminist Archaeology  Focuses on study of gender, how gender is represented, and unmask biases of male archaeologists o Agency Theory  People make active decisions not simply reacting to external forces  Social structure created by at least one individual o Evolutionary Archaeology  Memetics: cultural traits (memes) transfer through culture  Darwinian: understands cultural change through biological ideas  Evolutionary Psychology: modern behavior programmed in past - Prehistory o Human history before written records - History o Study of the past using written sources - Ethnohistory o When groups write about each other - Oral History o Accounts passed down generations through talking or song - Uniformitarianism o Theory that processes that happened in the past still happen in the present - Catastrophism o Cataclysmic events shaped the world - Three Age System (1800s) o Stone Age – Early Stone Age: only stone tools, Later Stone Age: first appearance of metals, crude decorated pottery buried in tombs o Bronze Age – copper and bronze tools, urns used for cremation o Iron Age – tempered iron, bronze luxury goods  Stage 1: serpent design  Stage 2: dragons and other mythical animals - Typology o Augustus Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers o Arrangement of artifacts in chronological order - Marxist Archaeology o Karl Marx o Historical materialism o Social relation to technology is key and steps of production o Trade and exchange - Culture Theory o V. Gordon Childe  Recognized similar patterning between archaeological collections across Europe  Theory of two worldwide revolutions:  Neolithic Revolution – began emergence of homesteads and agriculture  Urban Revolution – began appearance of cities and complex government - Processual (New) Archaeology o Archaeology is anthropology of the past o Explains culture change and processes o Scientific - Post-Processual Archaeology o Focuses on individual and `lived experience` - Feminist Archaeology o Focuses on study of gender and representation - Agency Theory o Individuals make active decisions not simply by external forces - Aristotle o Fixity of Species – all life created by god and never changes o Great Chain of Being – organisms order from simple to complex - Robert Hook o Fossil remains reveal past life of organisms - James Hutton o History of the Earth o Stratification of rock layers o Uniformitarianism - Georges Cuvier o Extinction o Catastrophism  Cataclysmic events shaped world - Charles Lyell o Supported Hutton`s theory of Earth`s Age o Slow process of evolution - Jacques Boucher de Perthes o Discovered stone tools in association with extinct animals - Charles Darwin o The Origin of Species – natural selection o The Descent of Man – natural selection humans - C.J. Thomsen o Developed Three Age System – Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age - Augustus Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers o Typology – arrangement of artifacts - William Flinders Petrie o Careful excavations o Published all findings o Refined method of seriation – created detailed chronology - Alfred Kidder o Created `blueprint`  Reconnaissence  Criteria for ranking remains at sites chronologically  Seriation sequence  Stratigraphic excavation  Detailed regional survey - Mortimer Wheeler o Pioneered square grid (1mx1m) excavation o Trained students at field schools LECTURE 4: HOMININ ORIGINS - What is Culture? o Shared values, ideas, and beliefs - Tool Use by Animals o Chimpanzees, otters, and crows - Bipedalism o Advantages  Hands are free  Infant care  Food carrying  Tool use  Elevated head  Visibility  Energetic Advantages  Energy efficient  Long distance travel  Heat regulation o Disadvantages  Lower body stress  Pain in knees, hips, and lower back - Early Hominins o Sahelanthropus tchadensis  6-7mya  Found in Chad  Only have evidence of Partial cranium  Reduced canin  Small brain  Earliest known Hominin o Orrorin tugenensis (original man from the Tugen hills)  5.8-6mya  Found in Western Kenya  Specimens of jaw, teeth, finger, arm, and leg bones  Knees show bipedalism  Curved fingers  Large teeth o Ardipithecus  4.4mya  Found in Ethiopia  Two species: Ardipithecus ramidus & Ardipithecus kadabba - Australopithecines o 4.2-1mya o Diverse group  Gracile vs. Robust o Bipedal o Australopithecus – Gracile  Cranium, mandible, and teeth lightly built 
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