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[ANTHR101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHR101
Professor
Francois Larose
Study Guide
Midterm

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U of A
ANTHR101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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What is anthropology?
The study of Humans.
Anthropologists:
They are interested in both universals and differences in human populations.
They want to discover when, where, and why humans appeared on earth, how and why
they have changed since then, and how and why modern human populations vary in the
biological and cultural feautures.
Anthropologists are interested in people of ALL periods
The Holistic approach:
The holistic approach is the IDEA that something as a whole is greater than the sum of
its parts.
Example: For culture, there are many parts that make it as a whole today, food, clothing,
etc.
Anthopologist’s cuiosity?
Their curiosity focuses mainly on typical characteristics (traits, customs) of human
groups and how to understand and explain them.
Fields of Anthropology:
Biological Anthropology: (physical)
- Deals with biological and physical characteristics of humans.
- This field seeks to answe 2 uestions….
- First set: is about the emergence of humans and their evolution. This focus is called
(Human Paleontology or Paleoanthropology)
- Paleontologists search for and study the buried and fossils of
humans,prehumans,etc to reconstruct human evolution.
-paleontologists are interested in the behaviour and evolution of our closest
relatives amongn the mammals, like monkeys and apes, which like ourselves are
members of the order of PRIMATES.
- Second set: How and Why contemporary human populations vary biological (Human
variation)
-The study of human variation, investigates how and why contemporary human
populations differ in biological or physical characteristics.
- all living people belong to one species, HOMO SAPIENS, for all can successfully
interbreed.
Cultural Anthropology:
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- Cultural Anthropology is concerned with how and why cultures vary or are similar in
the past and present.
- 3 branches of Cultural Anthropology..
Archaeology
Is the study of past cultures, primarily through their remains.
They trace cultural changes and to offer possible explanations for
those changes.
Archeologists reach much farther back than historians.
Archeologists use information from the present and past in trying to
understand the distant past.
Anthropological Linguistics
Study mainly the structure and history of the languages.
Anthropological linguists began to do fieldwork in places where the
language was not yet written, this means anthropologists could not
consult a dictionary or grammar to help them learn the language. So
they did construct a dictionary and grammar, then they began their
studies.
They also study contemporary variation.
Historical Linguitics: The study of how languages change over time
and how they may be related.
Descriptive Linguistics: the study of how contemporary languages
differ, especially in their construction.
Sociolinguistics: The study of how language is used in social contexts.
Sociolinguistics are interested in the social aspects of language,
including what people speak about and how they interact, attitudes,
and how people speak differently in social context.
Ethnology
Usually called cultural anthropologists.
Ethnologists try to understand how and why people today and in the
recent past are different or similar in the ways of thinking and acting.
Ethnographers (type of ethnologists) usually spend a year or living
with, talking, interacting, and observing the people who they are
studying. This field is called Ethnography. They rely on mostly their
observation and interviewing. Research is very consuming.
Ethno historian: studies how the ways of life of a particular group of
people have changed over time. They rely on reports of others.
Research is very consuming.
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