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ANTHR101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Radiocarbon Dating, Maya Calendar, Absolute Dating


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHR101
Professor
Dan Syrotuik
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 1 Test
statistical support of a theory
research driven by curiosity
repetitive tests of a theory
research driven by compassion
1. Which of the following is a definition of basic research?
the scientific orientation
the anthropological curiosity
the scope of anthropology
2. A group of anthropologists (including linguists, archaeologists, paleoanthropologists, and climatologists) comes toget her to study an ancient Mayan calendar.
What does this group’s assembly most demonstrate?
determining and measuring the sample
defining the variables
confirming or rejecting the theory
evaluating the data
3. What is usually the last step in testing a theory?
the discovery and study of ancient human artifacts
the study of the prehistoric earth
the study of human evolution
the study of how and why contemporary human populations differ biologically
4. What is paleoanthropology?
to illustrate the variety of artifacts archaeologists study
to describe how Mayans lived
to demonstrate which artifacts give more information
to demonstrate which artifacts have lasted longest
5. Why does the author cite the Mayan temple of Chichén Itzá along with broken pottery and garbage heaps?
confirming or rejecting the theory
determining and measuring the sample
defining the variables
evaluating the data
6. What is usually the first step in testing a theory?
remeasure the 27 societies with low protein and long sex taboos
remeasure the 20 societies with low protein and short sex taboos
remeasure the 47 societies with high protein and short sex taboos
remeasure the 25 societies with medium protein and long sex taboos
7. Examine Table 1.1 on page 17. What could be done to improve the statistical significance of Whiting’s findings?
It gives us confidence that no matter what we do to the environment, we will find a way to survive.
It produces models of the best cultures and societies.
It provides inside information about our political enemies.
It helps us understand each other in an increasingly interconnected world.
8. What is the value of anthropology in today’s world?
the message that humanity is powerless
the message that the future is hopeless
the message that it wants a violent confrontation
the message that it thinks the other countries are inferior
9. What negative message might a powerful country convey when it tries to help other countries?
to demonstrate how anthropology can help people solve their personal problems
to illustrate how anthropology helps people live better lives
to give an example of how anthropology helps avoid misunderstandings between peoples
to illustrate how anthropology helps end violence between cultures
10. Why does the author include the example of North Americans’ changing to live more like San people of the Kalahari Dessert in South Africa?
customs and observations
observations and theories
associations and theories
actions and associations
11. What are the two types of explanations that are sought in science?
historical linguistics
epidemiology
basic ethnology research
applied ethnography research
12. Read the Applied Anthropology box on page 9. Which type of anthropology did Anita Spring begin in the 1980s?
13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist?
Unit Tests Ch. 1-5
September-19-12
7:55 AM
ANTH 101 Page 1

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How were the first cave paintings produced?
Can chimpanzees learn sign language?
Why do we give wedding presents?
Does God exist?
13. Which of the following questions would interest an ethnologist?
to help present-day humans interact better with their environment
to clarify human evolutionary relationships
to give present-day humans a sense of their shared past and connection with the environment
to see how early humans compared to other species
14. Why would paleoanthropologists study plant and animal populations?
He will most likely examine physical and written artifacts concerning health from each island.
He will most likely gather ethnographer accounts from different populations and look for patterns.
He will most likely construct statistical data on the physical environments of each island.
He will most likely conduct his own ethnography research with each population and look for patterns.
15. Dr. Samson wants to compare health habits among contemporary island populations in the South Pacific. How is he MOST likely to do this?
to preserve the information before the site is destroyed
to test theories about human evolution
to help the present population living around it
to demonstrate both humanity’s humility and confidence
16. Examine the photo and its caption on page 6. Why are archaeologists studying this site?
Anthropologists are mainly interested in the big picture, rather than specifics.
Anthropologists integrate information about many facets of human experience.
There is little specialization within the field.
Anthropology focuses on traditional practices, such as holistic medicine.
17. What makes Anthropology a holistic science?
How do these studies affect and assist the population being studied?
How does a given artifact support or negate a theory about human development?
What are the typical characteristics of human groups?
How and why do populations organize themselves differently around the globe and throughout the ages?
18. Which is an essential question that all anthropologists ask?
to illustrate how thermometers work
to illustrate that anthropology is both a physical and a social science
to illustrate how cold snow is
to illustrate how anthropologists must work in many types of climates
19. Examine the photo and its caption on page 13. Why does the author include this image in this section of the chapter?
archaeology
descriptive linguistics
ethnohistory
paleoanthropology
20. Which of the following fields is most likely to include applied anthropologists?
that it is uncertain
that it is understandable
that it is unknowable
that it is absolute
21. What is the scientific orientation toward knowledge?
make intuitive sense
be supported by evidence
reflect the absolute truth
incorporate the researcher’s biases
22. Explanations of human behavior and variation should __________.
linguists only
ethnologists and archaeologist
applied anthropologists and cultural anthropologists
biological anthropologists and linguists
23. Which types of anthropologists study the origins of human language?
a statistical association
an observation
a theory
an explanation
24. Dr. Amini notes that in one society, only men plant yams, whereas women plant and harvest all other vegetables. What is Dr. Amini’s study an example of?
It cuts across them.
It distinguishes each one.
It excludes them.
It ties them all together.
25. How does applied or practical anthropology relate to the other fields of anthropology?
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Chapter 2 Test
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Chapter 2 Test
They use the exact same research methods.
They use all of the same sources of evidence.
Ethnographers provide data for future ethnohistorians.
Ethnographers provide data for past ethnohistorians.
1. How are ethnographers related to ethnohistorians?
by studying where people lived (e.g., closer or further from food sources)
by studying what people ate (e.g., how much protein their diets contained)
by comparing materials from today that are associated with particular genders
by finding, recording, and analyzing materials associated with gender
2. Read the New Perspectives on Gender box. How can knowledge about gender roles be recovered?
because the specific sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative
because ethnographical research is more reliable than data analysis
because the random sampling of worldwide cultures is more representative
because data analysis is more reliable than ethnographical research
3. Why is cross-cultural research more generally applicable than regional studies?
specimens that are representative of a regional culture
specimens that establish a strata for relative dating
minerals that decompose, indicating absolute dating
minerals that were typically used for lithics
4. What are indicator artifacts?
Objects are more visually appealing when placed in a natural context.
It is only with all the contextual pieces in place that we can know the true meaning of an object from the past.
Context gives information as to how and why the object was created and used.
Without context, it is impossible to accurately date an object.
5. Why do you think context is so important in archaeological research?
Witnessing ritual practices of homosexuality.
Returning to the field to conduct a follow-up study a decade later.
An invitation to the wedding of a key informant’s enemy.
Being asked to be god-parent to the chief’s new son.
6. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to create an ethical dilemma for an ethnographer?
recording horizontal and vertical levels
excavation
pedestrian survey
curating artifacts
7. Examine the photo and caption on page 28. What step in the research process are these anthropologists most likely condu cting?
Features may include ecofacts.
Ecofacts indicate features.
Ecofacts determine features.
Features are made up of ecofacts.
9. How do features relate to ecofacts?
Radiocarbon dating and relative dating.
Radiocarbon dating only.
Relative dating and potassium-argon dating.
Potassium-argon dating and radiocarbon dating.
10. If you discovered what looked like a Homo habilis fossil, which dating technique(s) would you choose?
a bog
the ocean floor
a rain forest
a limestone quarry
11. In which area would we most likely find fossils?
Archaeologists use other specimens to relatively date artifacts and use minerals to absolutely date them.
Archaeologists must be subjective participants and objective observers.
History is most important to archaeologists, yet they focus on artifacts rather than written documents.
Context is most important to archaeologists, yet they destroy context during excavation.
12. What is paradoxical about archaeology?
Worldwide sample, Nonhistorical
Regional, Nonhistorical
Worldwide sample, Historical
Single case, Historical
13. Examine Table 2.1. An epidemiologist is studying the recent eradication of smallpox from the face of the earth. Where on the chart would this
anthropologist’s study fall?
They both are obligated to report honestly.
They both need to be aware of looting.
They both need to be aware of gift giving.
They are both likely to affect context.
14. How are ethical dilemmas similar for ethnographers and archaeologists?
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