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University of Alberta
Gail Amort- Larson

You can’t go south, at least not before Wednesday and our first midterm exam … Speed Bump by Dave Coverly 1 2 Altering equilibrium conditions Le Chatelier’s principle If a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the 1. concentration position of equilibrium will shift in a direction that 2. adding/removing reactants/products tends to reduce that change. 3. pressure 4. volume 1. Effect of concentration 5. temperature An example of concentration change, the dissociation 6. catalyst of formic acid.  HCOOH (aq) H 2 (l) H3O +(aq) HCOO – (aq)  Cehatelie’rinciple –4 K = 2 x 10 Suppose at equilibrium [HCOOH] = 1.000 M [H O ][HCOO ]– [H O ] 2 K = 3 = 3 [HCOOH] [HCOOH] + – [H3O ] = [HCOO ] since the source for both is the same HCOOH 3 4 Rearrange and solve 2. Adding/removing reactants/products + – If a component is added to a system at equilibrium, the [H ] = [HCOO ] = K [HCOOH] = 0.014 M equilibrium position will shift in the direction that tries to lower back the concentration of that component. Add (HCOO)Na so that [HCOO –] = 0.02 M + – [H 3 ][HCCO ] –4 If the component is removed the reverse effect occurs. Q = [HCOOH] = 2.8 x 10 No change with addition/removal of solids provided Q > K  some are left in the rxn flask Result: more HCOOH when equilibrium will be  A + B  C + D reestablished. Add A  Remove A  As long as A is not a solid 5 6 3. Effect of pressure change on the system 4. Change volume 3 methods to change the pressure:  N2O4 (g)  2 NO 2 (g)nstant – Add/remove gaseous reactants/products P NO 2 K = 2 covered that in the previous effect ! P N2O4 – Add an inert gas If P is increased (compressiovolume is decreased The total pressure changes but the partial pressures oEffect: shift to the lft the
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