Midterm Review Sheet
Dr. Torah Kachur
Below is a set of Objectives and Study Exercises to focus your studying for the Biology 107
midterm. This is NOT ALL that you need to review but does outline major concepts that were
focused on in the course.
Try not to look at your notes when fillingthis out! These questions are NOT representative of
exam-style questions – they are very broad and vague – use them to get you thinking not just
Good luck studying and, as always, contact me if you have any questions.
Lecture 1 Objectives
Outline the characteristics of life
Explain the current criteria of classification and its logic
Draw and discuss the significance of the tree of Domains
Describe the differences between Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya
Give an example of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
Draw a tree outlining the relationship of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.
What is the evidence for this classification?
Fill in the following table
Characteristic Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
Peptidoglycan in cell
chromosome Lecture 2 Objectives
Classify different macromolecules
Identify the subunits of each macromolecule
Describe 2 functions for each class of macromolecule
Identify the bond type between each subunit
Be able to draw the chemical structure of the backbone of the amino acids
Give an example of each class of macromolecule
Fill out the following table
Polymer / Macromolecule
Type of Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Nucleic Acid
Draw one amino acid from each classification group and cysteine. Identify the backbone, R
group and defining features. Explain the reason for classification.
Explain the Watson and Crick model of DNA. Outline – directionality of strands, type of helix,
base pair structures, base composition and function of DNA.
Explain how lipids are classified, name at least 3 lipids and their respective functions.
Outline the basic steps of protein folding and explain the driving forces and stabilizing forces at
each stage of protein folding.
Lecture 3 Objectives
Outline the basic properties of cells
Describe, in detail, the phospholipid bilayer and identify its components
Draw an intact biological membrane and all of its components
Know the difference between peripheral and integral membrane proteins Describe how cholesterol maintains membrane fluidity
Describe 4 different ways to get a solute across the membrane
Understand the difference of passive and active transport mechanisms
Understand the contributions and influence of both electrical and chemical gradients
Determine which molecules are permeable and those that are not to the biological
Determine which molecules require enzymes and energy to transport across the
Draw the Fluid Mosaic Model of the phospholipid bilayer. What properties of phospholipids
allow for formation of the bilayer? Whatforces stabilize the bilayer? What components differ
between plant and animal cell membranes?
Explain how temperature affects membrane structure. What adaptations have cells made to
survive at both extreme high and extreme low temperatures? Why?
Which types of molecules are permeable to the membrane? Impermeable? Why?
Explain the difference between passive transport and facilitated diffusion.
Draw the sodium/potassium pump including type of transport, numbers of ions transported,
direction of concentration gradient, energy source and net result. Why does a cell undergo this
Why does a cell undergo bulk transport? What mechanisms are used? What are the
similarities and differences between phagocytosis, exocytosis and receptor-mediated
Give one example given in class of co-transport.
Lecture 4 Objectives
Identify common organelles between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Explain why bacteria are limited in cell size compared to prokaryotes
Draw and describe prokaryotic motile structures
Explain how prokaryotic cells perform cell activities without membrane bound