Biology 107 complete overview

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)

Bio 107 OverviewLecture 1Characteristics of Living ThingsOrganizeMetabolizeperform biological energy conversionsRespond to stimuliComposed of cellsReproduceEvolveReliance of classification Physical StructureFossilsGeneticsCladogram a family tree to show relatedness of speciesWhittakers 5 Kingdom System Monera Protista Fungi Plants Animal3 Domain System Bacteria Archaea EukaryaCladogram shows Archaea more similarly related to Eukaryotes because of less genetic differences Similar physically to BacteriaDomain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Philip Came Over For Good SoupProkaryoticNo true nucleus no membrane bound organellesEukaryoticMembrane bound organellesARCHAEA Prokaryotic uses DNA single circular chromosome Usually extremophiles Introns in DNABACTERIAProkaryotic usually unicellular very metabolically diverse peptidoglycan in cell wallEUKARYAAll organisms you can see with naked eye and some you cant Larger true nucleus multi or unicellular introns in DNALecture 2 Water Universal solvent Polarity difference in EN of H and O causes dipole MonomerMonomerPolymerH2O condensation synthesisPolymer H2OMonomerMonomer hydrolysisCarbohydrates fcn in energy cell structure cell cell recognition blood type is glycoproteinCH2O empirical formula Monosaccharides 37C long linear or ring shapedGlucose C6H12O6 major energy sourceDisaccharides and Polysaccharides formed by glycosidic bonds Cellulose cell wall of plant cells body lacks enzyme to digest because of beta14 linkagesGlycogenanimal version of starch made of glucose highly branched storage of energy in mammalChitinstructural polysaccharide of insects forms exoskeleton when calcified used in surgical thread body enzymes will break it downLipidsClassified solely by hydrophobicity non polar mostly HCGlycerol3 fatty acidstriacylglycerol Fatty Acids 1618C long can be saturated or unsaturated kinks caused by cis bonds in unsaturatedCommon storage form of energy in animalsPhospholipids cell membrane PO4 Hydrophilic to 3rd C of glycerol Head Two fatty acids Hydrophobic tail Amphipathic because of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicitySteroids backbone of 4 fused carbon rings eg Cholesterol 2 major fcns plasma membrane maintains fluidity backbone of sex hormonesProteinsMade up of amino acids monomer to form protein polymerAmine group Primary Amine Central Carbon w ring group non polar polar polar charged carboxylic acid Polarity in a peptide non functional protein because of line up from NC2nd structure is alpha helix or pleated sheet exception of proline which wont form pleated sheet held by H bonds3rd structure is ionic and covalent bonding between adjacent AAs disulfide bridge most important in cystine Convoluted because of hydrophobic interactionQuaternary structure is 3rd structures coming together Chaperones proteins changing room ensure proteins fold correctly If misfolding occurs some diseases may occurNucleic AcidsMonomer is Nucleotide Deoxyribonucleic acid deoxyribose sugarRibonucleic acid ribose sugar Form long chain with phosphate back bone Rungs of ladder are pairs of ATU in RNA and CG PurinesAGPyrimidinesUTCNucleotides are polar therefore DNA and RNA is polarLecture 3Cell TheoryAll living things are composed of cellsEach cell is capable of maintaining its vitality independent of the restCells can only arise from other cells Exceptions are Viruses Viroids and PrionsCell membrane phospholipids have cis double bond to increase space maintain fluidityIntegral Membrane proteinsthroughoutPeripheral Proteins associated with Integral Membrane proteinsProteins in the membrane have these functionsTransport Na K EnzymaticSignal transduction send messages to inside of cellCell Cell recognitionGlycoproteinsTight Junctions attaches cells togetherAttach to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrixGlycosylation occurs in the smooth ER
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