BIOL 107 Entire Term Notes

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Harrington

Biology 107Lectures 111 Dylan Feist Macromolecules A cell contains water organic macromolecules lipids proteins nucleic acids and inorganic molecules such as sodium and hydrogen ions It is mostly water 70 and organic macromolecules 29Organic macromoleculesy An organic molecule is one that contains carbon Others define it as having both carbon and hydrogen Initially organic molecules were thought to have arisen from organisms giving it the word organic y Macromolecules are large organic molecules of biological origin A monomer is a single subunit while a polymer is a chain of monomers Polymers are ore important than monomers because the majority of the macromolecules in a cell are polymers 26 opposed to 3 There are functional groups attached to these macromoleculesHydroxyl OHCarbonylCarbon with double bonded oxygenCarboxylCarbon with OH and double bonded O can be ion as well though with no HAminoNitrogen with two H attached The ion has three H and is PhosphateA phosphate with 4 oxygen 1 is double bondedy Polymers are synthesized by condensation reactions that release water and require energy They are broken down by hydrolysis reactions that release energy and remove a water moleculeCarbohydrates sugarsy MonomersMonosaccharideo Monomers are made of only one sugar molecule The general structure is CnH2nOn where n is between three and seven Ribose is C5H10O6Glucose and Fructose are C6H12O6 o Monomers can be linear or ring structureo Their function is to provide the cell with an energy source and a carbon sourcey Dimersdisaccharideo Dimers are made of two monomers joined with a covalent bondo Sucrose is an example it is made of glucose and fructoseo Like Monomers their function is an energy source and a carbon sourcey Polymerspolysaccharide o Polymers are made of many sugars o There can be hundreds to thousands of glucose monomerso Examples includeGlycogenanimal energy storageCellulosePlant storageGlycogen has more branches than celluloseCellulose is either made of alpha glucose or beta glucose Alpha glucose is in starch while beta glucose makes us cellulose which is the structural material Lipidsy Lipids are macromolecule that are not joined endtoend and are synthesized through a condensation reaction y Although they are not polymers they are assembled from subunits y They are mostly made of carbon and hydrogen y Lipids are hydrophobic but can be mostly hydrophobic or entirely hydrophobic Fats and Oils o Fats and oils are made of one glycerol with three fatty acid chains attached to it These fatty acids are usually 16 to 18 carbons long The fatty acids can be either saturated no CC bond or unsaturatedProperty Fats Oils Fatty Acids Saturated Unsaturated Room Temp Solid Liquid Energy Storage Most Animals Plant SeedsFisho The type of energy storage depends largely on the environment that the organism lives is If the organism is warmblooded or lives in a warm environment like animals then fats will be used If there is a cold environment or not warmblooded plant seeds and fish then the organism will use oils o Whether an organism stores energy in the form of lipids or carbohydrates is influenced by weight Plants use carbohydrates because they are easier to make while animals use lipids because they store more energy per kilogram Phospholipids o Phospholipids are made of one glycerol with two fatty acids chains a phosphate group and a small groupo Phospholipids have hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads so when place in water they will form bilayersSteroids o Steroids are made of four fused carbon rings o Examples includeCholesterolmaintains membrane fluidityTestosterone and Estrogen which are sex hormonesProteinsy There are eight main types of proteinsEnzymatic Acceleration Digestive Enzymes Of Reactions Structural Support Silk webs of spiders Storage Stores Casein protein in milk Amino Acids Transport Moves Hemoglobin Substances Hormonal Coordination Insulinof Activities Receptor Response to Nerve cell receptors chemicals ContractileMotor Movement Actin and myosin Defensive Disease Antibodies
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