Final Exam Review

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Heather Proctor

Domain ArchaeaLack peptidoglycan in cell wallDont respond to antibioticsMany are extremophilesoMethanogensoHalophilesoThermophilesDomain BacteriaProteobacteriaoRhizobium fix nitrogenoE coliClamydiasSpirochaetesoSyphilis and Lyme diseaseGram bacteriaoImportant decomposersoMycoplasmas smallest known cellsoAnthraxoClostridium botulinum botulism devastates waterfowl flyu larvae can accumulate toxin by eating decomposing matter with C botulinum botoxCyanobacteriaoPhotoautotrophyoFix nitrogenDomain EukaryaLinear chromosomes in membrane bound nucleusOther membranebound organellesSerial endosymboisisAerobic heterotrophic prokaryote became mitochondrionMitochondrion and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circularPlastids have 2 or more cell membrane layersSecond wave of diversification due to structural diversity in eukaryotic cellThird wave of diversification after multicellular bodiesSyngamy Zygote embryoMay be different larval stagesSexoWhen two parents produce offspring with novel combinations of genesoRequires meiosis and fusion of haploid nucluiProtists unicellular eukaryotes that arent plants animals or fungioSome are mixotrophicoExist as complete organismsoSome thought to lack mitochondria but mitochondrial genes found Mitochondrial remanentsmitosomesoDiplomonads2 separate nucleiGiardia duodenalis beaver feverMitosomesoApicomplexansPlasmodum spp causes malariaoCiliatesFeed on bacteria and smaller protists by phagocytosisParameciumConjugationoUnikontsAmoebas move using pseudopodiaPlasmodia slime moldsCellular slime moldsoAlgaeDiatoms are single celledSome multicellularbrown algaeSome have alternation of generationsGreen AlgaeoSometimes symbionts in lichenoChlorophytes and charophyteCharophytes and plants share oRossetteshaped cellulose synthesizing complexesoPlants with flagellated sperm are similar to charophyte spermoPhragmoplast during cell divisionKingdom Plantae Embryophytes seedMulticellular dependant embryosAlternation of generationsSporopolleninAdaptations for water conservationLignified vascular tissue except BryophytesApical meristemsBryophytes NonvascularHepatophytaAnthocerophytaBryophytaLack true vascular tissue lack ligninHaploid gametophytes are dominantArchegonium produces single eggAntheridium produces many flagellated spermNeed to live in moist places
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