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CHEM101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Aluminium Hydroxide, Magnesium Sulfate, Nitric Oxide

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Yoram Apelblat
Study Guide

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Chem Lab Review
a. Prisms separate continuous spectrums into red -> violet
b. In discharge tubes, gases are excited by electric current from electrode to
c. Lower state -> photons emitted
d. Flame tests can identify presence of elements
e. Mole to entity calculations
f. Aogrado’s uer
g. Wavelength= violet < blue < green, etc
h. En = Z2squared Rh / nsquared for hydrogen like atoms
i. Larger Absorbance value = more incident light is absorbed
a. Aluminum from cans is dissolved by hot potassium hydroxide
b. Sulfuric acid creates a white solid
c. Al(OH)3 is AMPHOTERIC (reacts with either acids or bases)
d. End product crystallizes
i. Fertilizer: dissolved in water
ii. Magnesium sulfate is added with ammonia to adjust PH
iii. Solid is filtrated
iv. Assuming all P is comverted
v. Mass->moles->mole ratio-> moles -> mass
a. Copper does not readily react with sulfuric/hydrochloric acids, but it does with
NITRIC ACID, because it is a strong OXIDIZING AGENT
b. Copper + nitric acid = copper II nitrate + nitrogen monoxide + water
c. Colourless NO reacts with oxygen and turns red and poisonous
d. So instead, we add Na2CO3 and get copperII carbonate which is INSOLUBLE
e. Sold is filtrated
f. Cu II CO3 + sulfuric acid = CuSO4
g. Evolution of gas (which?)
h. Try to know structure of CuSO4.5H2O
i. We will reduce CuSo4 to copper
i. NH3 is a weak base and forms light blue Cu(OH)2
ii. When too much is added, dark blue Cu(NH3)4 2+ Is made
iii. Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O = square pyramidal shape, very soluble in water but
not ethyl alcohol
iv. Zn + CuSO4 = Cu + ZnSO4
a. Most solid compounds will contain some water when exposed to atmosphere
b. Easily removed by heat, or incorporated as an essential part of compound
c. ater of hdratio or ater of rstallizatio is usuall preset i stoih
d. **naming hydrates
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