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Chemistry 101 Lab Final Overview

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University of Alberta
Yoram Apelblat

Chemistry 101 Lab Final Notes Definitions & Things to Know: LAB A:  Spectrums/Continuous Spectrum (Silberberg, Fig. 7.3)  Discontinuous Spectrum… Discharge tubes (Fig. 7.8/7.9)  Emission of photons  Wavelength and energy of photons o Spectrums are unique for each element  Light emission (p. 273) o Flame test o Fireworks o Fluorescent lights (usually Hg discharge tubes)  Section 7.1 textbook Constant Symbol Unit or Value Wavelength  Meters Frequency  Cycles per second, Hz 8 Speed of light c 3.0 x 10 m/s Planck’s Constant h 6.626 x 10-34Js Nuclear Charge Z   = c  Ephoton= h = hc/  Avogadro’s Number … 6.626x10 -34Js  SI units and prefixes  Bohr Model… (Silberberg p. 271) o E =n-Z R / H 2 where R =H2.178 x 10 -18J o Z is the nuclear charge (eg. H = 1, He = 2, Li = 3) - o A transition of the e between level m to level n would result in (p. 271) E = (energy of final level) – (energy of initial level)n= Em- E = - Z R {(1/n ) – (1/m )} H  Know how to operate a spectrometer (Fig B7.3 Silberberg)  The plot of A against wavelength is called a spectrum LAB B:  Nomenclature (Section 2.8)  Stoichiometry (Chapter 3)  Balancing Chemical Reactions (Section 3.3)  Amphoteric (reacts with either an acid or base)… (p. 798) LAB C:  Difference between chemical and physical changes (p. 4-7 Silberberg)  Oxidizing and Reducing Agents  Copper cycle  Soluble/Insoluble  Filtrate = the liquid that passes through the filter  Weak/Strong acids and bases (p. 729 Silberberg) LAB D:  Water of hydration/Water of Crystallization  Naming hydrates (p. 63 Silberberg) . o Molar mass of CuSO 4 5H 2 equals the mass of CuSO , 4lus 5 times the mass of H 2  Some hydrated compounds spontaneously lose or gain water from the atmosphere o Spontaneously lose = efflorescent  Occurs because the vapor pressure of water exerted is greater than that of the vapor pressure of water in surrounding atmosphere o Spontaneously gain = Hygroscopic  Occurs because the vapor pressure of water exerted is less than that of the vapor pressure of water in surrounding atmosphere o Hygroscopic compounds can be used to dry liquids or gases = Desiccants  Most hydrates are stable at room temperature o To remove the water of crystallization from such a hydrate, it must be heated to a temperature at which the vapor pressure of water exerted by the solid hydrate exceeds the partial pressure of water in the atmosphere above the solid = Dehydration o After the water is gone the solid is now anhydrous o As a hydrate is heated and loses its water, the compound may…  Undergo a color change  Change crystal form (usually dry powdery solid)  May dissolve in its own water as the crystal structure breaks down, if continued heating, the water would evaporate and leave behind the anhydrous solid LAB F:  Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid (p. 432) o Water soluble due to Hydrogen Bonds  Limitin
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