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Final

CHEM105 Study Guide - Final Guide: Transition Metal, Coordinate Covalent Bond, Coordination Number


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM105
Professor
Yoram Apelblat
Study Guide
Final

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Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
Electron configuration
Ions
o (n-1)d electrons are significantly lower in energy than the ns
electrons.
o Apply the first in first out rule
o Fe = [Ar]4s23d6
o Fe2+ = [Ar]3d6
o Fe3+ = [Ar]3d5
Oxidation states
From Scandium to Manganese, the metal can lose all of their 4s and
3d electrons
o The max electrons lost range from 3 to 7
o Max oxidation state is +7
From Iron to Zinc, the oxidation states are mostly +2 or +3
o Cu has +1 and +2
o Ag has +1
o Au has +1 or +3
o Zn is always +2
Coordination numbers
Coordination compounds are compounds that contain complex ion(s)
and counter ions that together form a neutral compound.
o The counter ion is not bounded to the metal and will dissolve in
an aqueous solution

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Coordination number is the number of ligand atoms bonded directly to
the central atom
o These ligand atoms can all come from 1 ligand or several
different ligands.
Depends on the size and electron configuration of the central atom
Coordination numbers range from 2 to 12, with 6 being the most
common and 4 a close second
Many metals have more than one coordination number
Geometrics
Depends on the coordination number of the metal ion
Ligands
Neutral molecules or anions that has a lone pair of electron that can be
used to bond to the metal ion.
They form a coordinate covalent bond with the metal ion. This is a
bond where both electrons are from the ligand.
The metal ion is a Lewis acid while the ligand is a Lewis base.
Monodentate
o Ligands that form just one bond
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Chelates
o Complex ions which contain ligands that form more than one
bond. Chelates from a ring in the complex ion.
o Ethylenediamine (en) is a common bidentate, bonding through
the lone pairs on N.
o EDTA is a ligand that must bond to a metal ion with
coordination number 6
Nomenclature
1. Cations are named before anions
2. In complex ions, ligand names precede the metal ion
3. In ligands, O is added to the root names of ions. Neural ligands are
named as the molecule with a few exceptions:
4. Prefixes mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa are used to indicate number of
simple ligands
If the ligand name already contains a prefix, like en or dien, the
number of ligands is indicated by the prefix bis, tris, tetrakis.
The ligand name is put in parenthesis.
5. The oxidation state of the metal ion is indicated by Roman numerals
in brackets
6. If more than one ligand is present, name them in alphabetical order,
prefixed do not affect the order.
7. If the complex ion is negative, the suffix ate is added to the name of
the metal (the metal itself is still positive). There are some exceptions
as well:
Metal
Cation
Anion
Ni
Nickel
Nickelate
Co
Cobalt
Cobaltate
Fe
Iron
Ferrate
Cu
Copper
Cuperate
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