CHAPTER 1 NOTES:
Organic chemistry is carboncontaining compounds;
Vitalism ▯ magical force led to the creation of living beings; but then it was shown that you can convert
inorganic into organic with the presence of energy
o Ammonia and cyanic acid ▯ urea without oxygen (heat)
o Inorganic compounds lack the Vital force… but now people see that you can
synthesize organic compounds from inorganic very easily
A common misconception is that natural and synthetic compounds are different, when they’re not
You can make amino acids from inorganic compounds!
Purity of a compound can only be determined through carbon dating; most compounds are considered
organic ▯ Proteins, lipids, glycogen and DNA are organic
o Proton; 1800x as much and it’s in the nuclear core
o Neuton; uncharged particle; it’s responsible for the presence o▯ the most common
common isotope reflects the molar mass (isotopes= average)
o Electron; orbit around the nucleus and are responsible for chemical interactions
o Radioactive isoptopes can be used for radiocarbon dating
Proton number is the type of atom; oxygen has 16, carbon has 14
The number of electrons determine charge and bonding capabilities;
Electrons behave more like waves than particles
Electrons are found orbitals; orbitals are 90% likelihood places to find an electron;
Heisenberg uncertainty principle = we never know where exactly an electron
is; an electron can be anywhere at any time in the cloud, and electron density is where there’s a
likelihood of finding an electrons in the cloud ▯ the closer you are to the nucleus, the
greater the likelihood
Atomic orbitals are found in shells; and they have different quantum number (energy level = 1,2,3,4) ▯
n=1 is closest to the nucleus; n increases as you go further away and larger shells hold more electrons.
• S Orbit▯ spherical, nondirectional; electron density is highest at the nucleus and lowers
exponentially as you go further away;
• 1S orbital is like a circle; 2 S orbital is more like a double circle and it overlaps the 1S. 2S has
lower electron density near the nucleus and most of the electron density is further away; the 2S orbital also posses a node where there is no electron
• In the second shell there is are three 2p orbitals; each P orbital takes on a dumbbell
shape with a node in between; nodal plane means that each side of the
orbital is on each side of the nucleus. 2p ▯ 2py, 2px, 2pz and these are the
degenerate orbitals because they have the same energy levels.
Pauli Exclusion ▯ each orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, spins are paired; first
shell holds 2, second shell holds 8, third shell holds 18
Aufbau ▯ Fill up from the ground state to higher energy levels; ground state
configuration is the 1s 2s 2p ….
• Valence electrons are in the outermost shell; oxygen has 6, nitrogen has 5.
Helium is in the first shell with 2 electrons. Column or group
number = number of valence electrons; Hydrogen and lithium
have 1 electron in their valence shell.
• Hund’s Rule ▯ when there are 2 or more electrons in an orbital of the same
energy, the electrons will fill up the empty orbitals before pairing (this is how carbon
can pair it’s electrons)