EAS206- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 57 pages long!)

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EAS206
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SOME CURRENT OR FUTURE MISSIONS
Moon
o Chandrayaan-2 (India; orbiter, lander, rover)
o Chang'e (China; relay orbiter, lander, rover)
Mars
o InSight (NASA; lander)
Mercury
o BepiColombo (ESA-JAXA)
Asteroids
o "Ryugu" Hayabusa2 (Japan; sample return)
o "Bennu" OSIRIS-Rex (NASA - CSA; sample return)
Beyond
o "2014 MU69" New Horizons (NASA, flyby)
Human Exploration
o David Saint-Jacques to the ISS for 6 months
o SpaceX Falcon Heavy, Crew Dragon testing
Our Solar System
Planets: [Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars] - [Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune]
Dwarf planets: Cores - Pluto - 2003 UB313 - Oort Cloud
o Ice rock mixtures of planets way out (like Pluto)
Star: A large self-luminous object that generates energy by nuclear fusion
Planet: A relatively cold object that orbits around a central luminous star
Planetary body: General term for any body orbiting a star; includes planets and their
natural satellites/moons, as well as asteroids and comets
o Eg. Include everything in the solar system except for star
Astronomical Unit (AU): the average distance between the Earth and the Sun; about 150
million km
o Earth = 1 AU
o Mars = 1.5 AU
Sun
o 99.87% of the mass of the Solar System
o H and He, fusion reactions produce light
o 100x the diameter of the Earth
Terrestrial (Inner) planets: The relatively small, rocky bodies closest to the Sun; "Earth-like"
Mercury, Venus, Earth, (Moon), Mars
MERCURY
o Closest to the Sun
o Larger than Earth's moon
o Now completely mapped, as a result of the MESSENGER mission
o Rays that extend across the surface
Igneous processes
Lava
Strange pits
Surface materials are different from what we are used to seeing
Superposition allows us to estimate the relative age
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VENUS
o Magellan radar images (bright = rough; dark = smooth)
o Craters, mountain belts, volcanoes
o Highlands and basins
EARTH
o Rare impact craters (not visible here)
o Plate tectonics
o Erosion (wind, water)
o Atmosphere (clouds)
o Life!
o MOON!
Orbits the Earth
Only other planetary body that humans have visited
The Far Side!
Cratered highlands, dark maria
MARS
o The red planet
o Darker and lighter areas of pale pink-red
Due to dust transport
Dark due to geological processes like lava
o Polar caps, thin atmosphere
o Erosion by water
Volcanoes
Valleys
Cratered southern highlands
Smooth northern lowlands
ASTEROID BELT: The region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter where most
asteroids are found
o Asteroids range from 1 km to 1000 km in diameter
o Many meteorites are derived from the asteroid belt
o Example: VESTA
Visited by Dawn spacecraft
525 km diameter
Possible "protoplanet" (a mini planet that didn't get quite big enough)
o Example: CERES
Visited by Dawn spacecraft
946 km across; considered a dwarf planet [largest object]
A lot of craters are actually pretty shallow
Purple stuff = lots of salt, organic materials
Healing crust wound (shallow b/c of the slush underneath) as it attempts to
slope back up
o Example: EROS
Visited by NEAR spacecraft
33 km long
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