EAS206- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 45 pages long!)

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EAS206
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Comparison
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The Hemispheric Dichotomy
The large difference between the two halves of mars between the southern highlands
(heavily cratered) and the northern lowlands
Formed early in Mars’ history
Mechanism unknown - yet the leading hypothesis is the giant impact
Relief along the escarpment = 2 3 km
Fundamental problem in Mars geology
Dominant Geologic Processes on Mars
Volcanic activity
Crustal fracturing (valles Marineris)
Kind of tectonic activity - not like the earth
Hydrology (water/ice cycle)
Through channels, polar caps
Wind deposition/erosion
Internal Structure of Mars
Density (3.93 g/cm3)
Less dense than Earth
But surface rocks less dense (2.7-3.0 g/cm3)
Orbiting data: a core
Fe-S (~14%S)
Significant amount of sulfur in the core
1700 km radius (fairly uncertain)
Weak magnetic field
No active dynamo (the thing that generates the magnetic field inside planets)
Silicate mantle
Convecting
Asthenosphere ~250 km
Crust
Tens of km thick
Atmosphere
Originally from degassing from the interior, but the atmosphere has become
thinner over time - mostly through loss of gases
More data expected about the inside in the near future
NASA Insight Mission
Geologic History of Mars
Stage 1: Accretion and Differentiation, 4.56 Ga
“Earliest Noachian
Differentiation
Crust stabilized
Magma ocean
Degassing to make primordial atmosphere & hydrosphere
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