EDU 250 – Midterm Notes 10/12/2012 8:43:00 AM
EDU 250 Study Notes
Palmer, The heart of a teacher: identity and integrity in teaching
Teaching is complex, it consists of the subjects, the students, and a
wealth of self knowledge.
Consists of intellectual, emotional, and spiritual aspects.
Teaching isn‟t just technique, it is identity and integrity.
Teaching makes us vulnerable.
Teachers lose heart because teaching is a daily exercise in
Palmer discusses the inner teacher. Both the teacher and students
have inner teachers and it is important to try to connect them. By
listening to the inner teacher, we become more in tuned with our
own identity, integrity, selfhood, and sense of vocation.
Pugach, Putting what you already know about teaching into perspective
All children want to learn – Esther Rothman
Prior knowledge about teaching comes from:
Your own experience – the familiarity everyone has with school.
Your autobiography – personal life experiences that impact your
knowledge about schooling. This includes family and personal
Experience working in schools.
Views of teaching portrayed in the media.
Opinions about teaching are always changing.
Sir Ken Robinson on Education.
Apprenticeship of Observation is a term coined by Dan Lortie and it
describes the knowledge we attain about teaching during the years
we watch our own teachers.
ATA‟s Mark Yurick, Introduction to the teaching profession
Allison, et al., The control of public education in Canada: an introduction
History: parents, community groups, and churches were primarily
responsible for education in Canada.
Shift to state-run education. This was done to ensure that every
child had access to primary education. The best way to do this
would be to have education provided by the state. There are many challenges associated with public education. First,
there is public accountability of spending. Opportunities for all must
be equal and provide for minorities. Education standards must be
kept high. Last, there will always be a demand for it.
In Canada, public education is mainly achieved through the
provincial governments and locally elected boards.
Teachers, trustees, parent organizations, and students can all
influence education policy.
Osborne, The importance of pedagogy
Dr. Paszek, Democracy in Schools
Being a 21 century learner means developing an ethical citizen,
engaged thinkers, and the entrepreneurial spirit.
Socialization occurs through school in an informal way. Teacher
expectations, moral and political socialization, peer groups, hidden
curriculum, and the media/popular culture.
Incorporated the video clip from “Bad Teacher” to show portrayal in
Dr. Paszek comments that education is a necessary prerequisite for
democracy to occur effectively.
Education occurs for the marketplace rather than for life.
The main focus of public education needs to shift.
Every teacher is a teacher of democracy.
Idea is to evolve student‟s concept of democracy.
Teachers need to be open to professional growth.
Dr. Wimmer, Experiential learning
Experiential education is a philosophy of education that describes
the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses
direct experience with the learning environment and content.
It is a philosophy that informs many methodologies in which
educators purposefully engage with learners in direct experience
and focused reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop
skills, clarify values, and develop people's capacity to contribute to
Dr. Wimmer discusses the epistemology of learning. How do you
know what you know? John Dewey was a philosopher, psychologist and an education
reformer who played a role in progressive education and liberalism.
David Kolb is a philosopher who developed ideas regarding learning
style. He was also highly influential in the ideas of experiential
learning. He developed the Experiential Learning Model, which is
based heavily on the impact of concrete evidence in a student‟s
Beynon, et al., The context of learning to teach
Four types of teaching:
o Transmission – teacher at a lectern
o Skill Development – guided practice of a skill followed by
o Natural Development – the idea that the teacher provides
rich, developmentally appropriate activities for each child.
o Constructivist – the perspective that students bring their own
constructs into the classroom. With them, student perceive
and reflect on what they are learning. The purpose of the
constructivist view is to broaden the student‟s perceptions of
Reflection on your own teaching is one of the most important things
a teacher must do. They must be committed to lifelong learning.
McNally, et al., First lessons in behavior management
Behavior management is generally acknowledged to be one of the
major tasks facing new teachers.
Teachers must maintain order and discipline among the students
(under the direction of the principal).
The Teaching Quality Standard emphasizes the importance of
respecting students‟ human dignity.
Student directed management has been shown to reduce the level
Teaching well depends on establishing strong relationships of
respect and trust between the student and the teacher.
There are different levels of interventions when a student
Nonverbal – think proximity interference or “the look”.
Verbal – question or hint the student on what the appropriate
Logical Consequences – provide a choice
Communicate to the class what your expectations are.
Don‟t forget that there are parents and it is often beneficial to have
them involved. Dr. Volante, Accountability, student assessment, and the need for a
Evaluation: judgment applied to information gathering through
assessment. It is the actual mark or letter grade assigned to report
Assessment: gathering information about a learner‟s progress in
order to make a judgment. It can be used to help the learner
improve or to help the teacher modify the teaching environment.
Formative assessment does not lead to a mark or a grade. It is
used for the purpose of planning instruction.
A summative assessment is used to assign a mark, to determine
whether the student is ready to proceed.
There are two main types of assessment: criterion referenced, and
Bloom‟s taxonomy has six components, ranging from remembering
to synthesis and evaluation. Most standardized tests are unable to
test analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Instead, they focus on
remembering, understanding, and transferring.
Pros of standardized testing – students‟ knowledge is effectively
assessed. Teachers can identify areas of strengths and weakness.
Administrators can judge curriculum and policies.
Cons of standardized testing – often the test only tests a llimited
range of knowledge and skills. A student‟s outcome on the exam is
susceptible to test anxiety or other personal struggles. Teachers
may feel pressured to teach for the test. Administration may
experience unhealthy competition between schools.
Include sound classroom-based assessment data – Expand the
Use standardized measures – as a supplement.
Have targets and standards that are realistic for students, teachers
Promote individual student improvements vs. cross-school
Utilize „value-added‟ criterion to interpret student performance.
(to prevent teachers from shouldering the blame for poor
Provide teachers and admin with PD focused on assessment
Review the assessment system regularly.
Always concern yourself with the quality of student learning. EDU 250 Final Notes 10/12/2012 8:43:00 AM
Teaching in Diverse Contexts
Public education is supposed to be the great equalizer. It is
supposed to operate on the principle that regardless of a student‟s
cultural background, socio-economic status or intellect, they will
receive a first-class education. We will simply not settle for anything
less than each and every student being afforded the chance to
secure a bright future
- Edgar Schmidt, October 12, 2008
Parents can choose from public, Catholic, Francophone, private
schools and charter schools. They can also use online resources or
home school their children.
In Alberta, Public and Catholic schools are publicly funded fully
through per-student allocations.
Every individual who at Sept 1 in a year is 6 years of age or older
and younger than 19 is entitled to have access to an education
The right of a religious minority to establish a separate school
district is enshrined in legislation.
When there are enough students to warrant it, parents whose first
language is French have a right to have their child educated in
In Alberta, private schools are typically used to preserve cultural,
linguistic, and religious distinctions. The “Domain of the Rich and
Famous” stereotype does not hold true in Alberta.
Charter schools are autonomous, non-profit public schools designed
to provide innovative or enhanced education programs that improve
the acquisition of student skills, attitudes, and knowledge in some
o Cannot be denominational.
o Can‟t charge tuition fees.
o Created and run by parents or non-profit societies.
o Must be approved by the ministry of education.
o Considered “public schools”.
o Same per pupil allocation as a “regular” public school.
Edwin G. Ralph
“Promoting Teaching in Rural Schools”
In recent years, increasing urbanization has resulted in a decrease
in rural populations. As a result, there are more multi-grade classrooms, small school closures, realignment of bus routes,
itinerant staff assignments, and amalgamation of rural school
However, rural schools need teachers. There will be an ongoing
need to hire teachers because veteran teachers will reach
retirement age, there are not substantially more students entering
the education field, and most students choose placements in
Concerns that rural school interns have is the ability to secure
suitable living accommodations, the extra travel expenses, and the
lack of access to instructional resources, cultural, leisure,
Advantages that are named by these student teachers include a
stronger relationship with students, more community involvement,
the opportunity to engage in more school activities, fewer student
discipline problems, and the opportunity to secure a rural teaching
Disadvantages of teaching in rural schools include the lack of
professional resources, an invasion of privacy, inadequate living
accommodations, isolation from staff/peers, work overload, greater
expense (for student teachers), isolation from support groups and a
lack of diversity in the community.
Advice for those who have rural placements:
o Be involved in school/community activities.
o Be aware on constant public scrutiny.
o Choose mentor teachers who have skills in mentorship and
are good matches.
o Have strong preparation and planning for your rural
placement from the university.
o Make resources known and available.
o Collaborate to find accommodations.
o Have reduced cost programs for rural placements.
“Speaking From Experience”
Michelle spent the first three years of her teaching career in a rural
setting. She chose rural because the need was there and she
wanted a full time position.
She lists the following as advantages to rural placements:
o Opportunity to build your resume.
o Community involvement (appreciative of your efforts) o Fewer student disciplinary problems (depending on
o Opportunity to rub elbows with principals, superintendents,
etc. on a regular basis within the community.
o Great respect for teachers, as professionals, in the
o Opportunity to try new ideas.
o Exposure to new cultures/lifestyles = personal growth
She lists the following disabilities for rural placements
o Same as E. G. Ralph
o Culture shock
o Academic achievement, attendance, and school completion
may not be valued in the community.
o Work can be “all consuming”
Ways that rural community position can change one‟s practice:
o Time away from distractions to focus on developing teaching
o Forced to develop strong organizational skills when teaching
o Appreciate the importance of mentorship.
o Confidence to teach subjects beyond major/minor.
o Excellent evaluations make resume stand out.
o Personal growth is inevitable.
o Personal stories.
She gives the following advice for rural placements:
o Check with school division about pedagogy resources,
consultants, and PD opportunities.
o Go in with the commitment to finish what you start.
o Research tax incentives.
o Research the culture of the community.
o Make memories and be memorable.
o Take full advantage of being away from distractions.
o Put in the effort it takes to get excellent evaluations to
support your applications in other districts down the road.
“Alberta Charter Schools: Paradox and Promise”
The promise of charter schools lies in fostering innovation and
efficiency in public education and more in providing schools of
choice for parents and in addressing diverse values and goals of
education. Positive outcomes of charter schools: sense of community and
strong parental commitment to their children‟s schools.
The Social Contect:
o Increasingly heterogeneous society. This means that there
exist fewer shared beliefs, cultural references, and practices.
o Population increasingly mobile.
o The goals of pubic education are not clearly defined and
o There exists a perceived crisis in public education.
o Charter schools are a step away from a neutral one size fits
Applying Free Market Thinking
o Providing parents the choice of which school their child
o Increased number of students and the dollars attached to
them serve as rewards to those schools that attract students.
o Open competition should raise standards, as all schools strive
to attract students.
Private vs. Public Goals of Education
o Government and professional educators view education as
serving the common good.
Equal educational opportunity.
Address issues of diversity, quality education, access,
o However, parents work for what is best for their child.
Sometimes, this means accessing better opportunities than
some parents receive.
o Wanting the best for one‟s own children is constructed as a
natural parental impulse with the caveat potentially at the
expense of some else‟s child being rendered invisible.
Criticisms of Charter Schools
o The creation of value communities reflect little fiefdoms
catering to the interests of their own social, ethnic, or cultural
group without concern for the larger social good.
o Contribute further to the fragmentation of society.
o Exclude those who do not adhere to the values of the
The Appeal of School Choice
o School choice appeals to those who value competiveness,
individualism, and achievement and undermines responsibility
of public service, ruptures the relationship between schools
and local community, and diverts education from the
responsibility of improving education for all students. o Promoters of educational markets assert that, given new
opportunities, those parents from non-dominant cultural
groups and social classes will exercise more choice over their
child‟s schooling, but what will really happen is that those
families who already possess cultural and economic resources
will simply add to their existing advantages further enhancing
social economic polarization.
o Charter schools hold promise for school improvement given
freedom from bureaucratic structure and increased
o They fail to live up to the promise given lack of start-up
funding, capital grants, and technical support.
o In a pluralistic society, the ideal of a common comprehensive
school what can address the diverse needs and values of all
children is no longer feasible.
o Market solutions appear to be governments preferred
solutions to these problems, but may not be the best one; we
need continued debate.
Haig-Brown, et al.
“The Sacred Circle: Spirituality and Joe Duquette High
Teachings of the sacred circle are accounts of reality passed from
generation to generation through legends, story telling, and
participation in rituals and ceremonies.
Represents the cosmic order, the unity of all things in the universe.
The philosophy of the Indian is built on the perception that in the
order of the universe, human beings are last. They know that their
lives are dependent on the lives of others and yet other‟s lives are
not depended on them.
Also called the medicine wheel.
To be healthy means to live in a meaningful vision of one‟s
Principles of Indian Philosophy:
o Material Reality vs Spiritual Reality
o Connection with other creations
o Capacity to create further potentiality through learning and
culture. o We transcend the limitations of mere materiality.
o Spiritual dimensions of human development may be
understood in terms of four related capacities.
Sweetgrass ceremonies, pipe ceremonies, sweat lodges,
Joe Duquette high school focuses on healing and that focus fits with
the emphasis on aboriginal culture and spirituality.
Some of the school‟s success arises out of the never-ending
tensions between the healing focus and the academic one.
“The 8 Fire”
Catherine Boyd and Kevin Carson, EPS
“Application Process and Hiring Practices”
Nancy Petersen, City Center Education Project, EPS
“Towards and Equal Playing Field”
Discusses poverty, especially multi generational poverty.
o Used to think extreme poverty was isolated in the inner city.
o Know that it is spread throughout the city
o Uses census data, such as education, government transfers,
immigration, language, low income, only parent families, as
well as unemployment.
o Moving (mobility) has a big effect on students.
o Students are labeled as socially vulnerable based on the
o If schools have a majority of socially vulnerable students,
then it is much more difficult to help the students.
Culture of Poverty
o Until you understand that your own culture dictates how you
translate everything you see and hear, you will never be able
to see or hear things in any other way.
- Rupert Ross, Dancing with a ghost
o Generational poverty – a child‟s family has been living in
poverty for many generations and has shaped the day to day
living of a family.
o Institutions are structured around the middle class.
o Social Norms of Poverty Food bank knowledge, as well as best throw away food,
get out of jail, obtain a gun, problems with a used car,
how to get by without electricity, how to entertain with
only yourself, how to get access to food stamps, where
free medical clinics are, navigate without a car, etc.
The skill set that you need to survive.
Discusses examples of registering a kindergarten
student for school. Parents enter and announce their
intentions, often cannot read the registration forms, and
do not always understand how to wait patiently.
o Social Norms of Middle Class
Use ATM, which stores sell which brands, students are
expected to go to school, can order at a restaurant, how
to behave at a shopping mall, house insurance,
mortgage, pension plan, difference between principle
and interest, if students have trouble is school they will
contact the teacher, library card, where to vote, repair
items when they break, know how to use tools, own at
least two of a laptop, computer, tv, cell phone, etc.
Families coming out of poverty do not have these social
norms because we do no recognize this as a teachable
moment. Instead, we are often judgmental.
Must be aware of the child‟s perspective and use
o Social Norms of Wealth
Can read a menu in several languages, many favorite
restaurants around the world, favorite artist, can read a
corporate financial statement, easily converse about
current events, know how to hire domestic help, ensure
confidentiality among those staff, fly first class, belong
to private club, children go to private school, on boards
Combining the School and Agencies
o What would it look like if family therapists were available in
school, after school care programs were offered, hot meals
were served, etc.
o Foundational Beliefs
All students must complete high school. Poverty cannot
be a limiting factor. People without a high school
education are more likely to be socially depended, the
jobs they have are typically lower paying, and most
likely to be eliminated during layoffs. Families often do
not value a high school diploma for various reasons. Perhaps they think that the student wouldn‟t respect
them, may forget about the family, etc. The program
had to let parents understand the value of a high school
Students coming from socially vulnerable communities
will receive excellent education. Historically, money had
gone towards paying staff. For many inner city schools,
money had been spent on people to work with the
students. Looking into the resources available, many
building lacked, there may not be a library, textbooks
(some have no textbooks), etc. This seems counter
intuitive to have school buildings offering second class
resources when the purpose of the program is to
drastically improve the quality of education among the
students. The students who need the best quality
education have parents who are least able to advocate
on the behalf of their children.
The needs of the whole child must be met as a means
towards successful learning and school completion.
Children may be coming into class hungry, tired,
without a caring parent to send them off to school.
Many of the students had unpredictable lives. Many
were caregivers at home, their parents have their own
personal issues such as mental health, domestic
violence, and substance abuse. Large families in one
bedroom apartments were common. Many children slept
in living rooms. The change from this environment to
school can be drastic for a child.
Example: a student coming in 45 minutes late can
either be seen as a behavioral problem, or it can
be seen as a miracle that that child chose to came
to school, despite the potential family issues that
exist. What the school decided to do was to
welcome students who are late into the school
and provide them with pens, paper, and a
textbook. What they found was a dramatic
increase in students actually coming to class, as
well as a reduction in the amount of classroom
disruptions. After a month, there was a staff
meeting where teachers confronted the office
about being “too nice” to the late students. The
principle discussed how they needed to change
their perspective on lateness. Strong relationships and partnerships are the
foundation of success – shared responsibility and
leadership. Changes in how the school functions are
difficult to implement. Having a youth worker available
to work with students is important, even when it means
that those students will be removed from their
classroom. The way the school and agencies practice
needed to be changed. Therapists were not prepared for
This way of working requires everyone to practice
o Terms such as “Schools as hubs” have become common. This
is the idea that the school can serve the community outside of
the regular hours of the school.
o Many pilots or models of practice across the province.
o Both provincial and local governments are funding initiatives
of this nature. If this kind of model is the solution to poverty,
the funding structure must be reassessed.
o The New Education Act supports the involvement of
community towards school success.
Lesson‟s Learned from this Program
o Relationships are essential to develop. You must connect with
the students. The students will only engage when they trust
you and when they know that you believe in them.
o Rigor and Relevance are also important. Many students are
behind grade level and programming must consider the skills,
especially with regards to reading and writing. We need to
accommodate these skills with their emotional development.
o Must engage children at the level that they are capable of.
o Partnerships – shared responsibility, increased capacity to
support and serve, creative solutions.
Example: when a child is removed from their home,
they do not come to school. Many students would not
have attended school in the reserve, so when they are
removed from his home, and placed in Edmonton, then
they cannot function. They require specialized therapy
and care. Creative solutions are required in order to
integrate the student into the classroom.
o Community wants to share in the journey of successful school
engagement and ultimately school success for all of today‟s
youth. Communities feel a responsibility to these youth. Lynn Farrugia and Shelley Shwartz
“English as a Second Language”
o The best time to learn English in an academic setting is at age
15. This is because they are comfortable in their own
Some courses teach that it is younger children who
learn more quickly.
o English must be explicitly taught. It cannot be soaked up in
the classroom. Explanations, teaching, visuals, etc. are
o Some English language learners choose not to speak until
they are comfortable speaking sentences.
o Fluency in a native language contributes to a more rapid
acquisition of language.
o Many students who are Canadian born of immigrants have a
lot of trouble with English as a Second Language. This is
especially true for High School because the language becomes
o It can take up to 7-9 years to acquire fluent academic
o Oral language is critical to a student‟s success in reading and
o Most native English speakers have about 5000 words when
they start kindergarten.
Need to learn about 3000 words per year in order to
15 000 words are needed to “read to learn” at an early
grade four level.
50 000 words are needed to earn a basic high school
85 000 words are needed to enter university.
200 000 words are needed to earn a university degree.
o ELL – English Language Learner
o ESL – English as a Second Language (program)
o LFS – Limited Formal Schooling
o L1 – First Language
o L2 – Second Language
o SLP – English Language Proficiency
o EAL – English as an Additional Language
o BICS – Basic Interpersonal Communicational Skills Playground talk.
o CALP - Cognitive Academic Learning Proficiency
Culturally Welcoming Classrooms
o School welcome signs in different languages.
o Books and resources in the library that focus on more than
one cultural perspective.
o Hiring of more culturally representative staff in schools.
o International week celebrations.
o Guest speakers from diverse backgrounds during Read-In
Profile of Students
o Born in Canada with multi-language families that do not
speak English at home.
It is important to speak the native language. Some
families move here and expect to only speak English,
but this is problematic to language development.
o Born in Canada into families speaking English and other
languages at home.
o Foreign born with literacy in English and other languages.
o Foreign born with literacy in other languages but not English.
o Foreign born with limited or no literacy in any language.
o Many immigrant families maintain their home language.
o Important to know your students.
Factors the Affect Fluency
o Age upon arrival
o Parents literacy level
o Literacy in the home language
o Home language similarities to English
o Prior experience with English
o Affective traits
High School Completion
o 70% of all students complete high school.
o Only approximately 50% of ESL students graduate in three
o 301: Foreign born
o 303: Canadian born
o 302: non-funded
o 55: International Student
o 640: Refugee student
Goals of Language Learning o To catch up to their English speaking peers in understanding
and communicating in spoken English.
Purpose of Learning a New Language
o Many different reasons, which can include needing to
communicate in a basic way, to pass a class, become a
doctor, or speak with family or friends.
o BICS – Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
Day to day conversation.
Can be learned in 6 months to 2 years.
Face to face interactions.
Simple language structures.
o Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Language of schools
Lectures, formal writing, grammar, etc.
Several years to obtain.
Advanced language structure.
o Circumlocution – does the student use circumlocution as a
Using other words to explain one word.
o Word Replacement
Lawn mower = grass cutter, outside vacuum.
Brick and Mortar Words
o Bricks – curriculum words. Vocabulary specific to the content
and the concepts being taught. It takes 7-12 times of working
with a word to learn it.
o Mortar – connecting words that span across the curriculum.
These include because, then, therefore, betwee, among,
leave, use, he, she, it, notice, think, analyze, plan, compare,
prove, and characteristics.
o Sentence frames are used to provide the mortar words, which
will enable students to use language to compare and contrast.
o Some words are critically important, while others are useful,
and some are simply interesting.
Instruction of Vocabulary – must be direct
o Explain, elaborate, recycle words.
o Allow many opportunities to use the words. o Manipulate the text to show that the words can be useful in
o Build in lots of repetition.
o Use vocabulary organizers.
o Personal dictionaries.
o Use themes.
Make Personal Connections
o Be real with your students.
Dianne Wishart Leard and Brett Lashua
“Popular Media, Critical Pedagogy, and Inner City Youth”
o Projects that sought to create and incorporate popular culture
in urban classrooms
o Not just critiquing popular texts but also focusing on the
relations and social contexts
o Putting critical pedagogy into practice
Critical pedagogy provides a way of seeing an unjust
social order and revealing how this injustice has caused
problems in the lives of young people who live in