EDU 250 Study Notes.docx

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Department
Education
Course
EDU250
Professor
Patricia Clancy- Novoseland Wendy Sorenson
Semester
Fall

Description
EDU 250 – Midterm Notes 10/12/2012 8:43:00 AM EDU 250 Study Notes Palmer, The heart of a teacher: identity and integrity in teaching  Teaching is complex, it consists of the subjects, the students, and a wealth of self knowledge.  Consists of intellectual, emotional, and spiritual aspects.  Teaching isn‟t just technique, it is identity and integrity.  Teaching makes us vulnerable.  Teachers lose heart because teaching is a daily exercise in vulnerability.  Palmer discusses the inner teacher. Both the teacher and students have inner teachers and it is important to try to connect them. By listening to the inner teacher, we become more in tuned with our own identity, integrity, selfhood, and sense of vocation. Pugach, Putting what you already know about teaching into perspective  All children want to learn – Esther Rothman  Prior knowledge about teaching comes from:  Your own experience – the familiarity everyone has with school.  Your autobiography – personal life experiences that impact your knowledge about schooling. This includes family and personal commitment.  Your beliefs.  Experience working in schools.  Views of teaching portrayed in the media.  Opinions about teaching are always changing.  Sir Ken Robinson on Education.  Apprenticeship of Observation is a term coined by Dan Lortie and it describes the knowledge we attain about teaching during the years we watch our own teachers. ATA‟s Mark Yurick, Introduction to the teaching profession Allison, et al., The control of public education in Canada: an introduction  History: parents, community groups, and churches were primarily responsible for education in Canada.  Shift to state-run education. This was done to ensure that every child had access to primary education. The best way to do this would be to have education provided by the state.  There are many challenges associated with public education. First, there is public accountability of spending. Opportunities for all must be equal and provide for minorities. Education standards must be kept high. Last, there will always be a demand for it.  In Canada, public education is mainly achieved through the provincial governments and locally elected boards.  Teachers, trustees, parent organizations, and students can all influence education policy. Osborne, The importance of pedagogy Dr. Paszek, Democracy in Schools  Being a 21 century learner means developing an ethical citizen, engaged thinkers, and the entrepreneurial spirit.  Socialization occurs through school in an informal way. Teacher expectations, moral and political socialization, peer groups, hidden curriculum, and the media/popular culture.  Incorporated the video clip from “Bad Teacher” to show portrayal in the media.  Dr. Paszek comments that education is a necessary prerequisite for democracy to occur effectively.  Education occurs for the marketplace rather than for life.  The main focus of public education needs to shift.  Every teacher is a teacher of democracy.  Idea is to evolve student‟s concept of democracy.  Teachers need to be open to professional growth. Dr. Wimmer, Experiential learning  Experiential education is a philosophy of education that describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content.  It is a philosophy that informs many methodologies in which educators purposefully engage with learners in direct experience and focused reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop skills, clarify values, and develop people's capacity to contribute to their communities.  Dr. Wimmer discusses the epistemology of learning. How do you know what you know?  John Dewey was a philosopher, psychologist and an education reformer who played a role in progressive education and liberalism.  David Kolb is a philosopher who developed ideas regarding learning style. He was also highly influential in the ideas of experiential learning. He developed the Experiential Learning Model, which is based heavily on the impact of concrete evidence in a student‟s learning. Beynon, et al., The context of learning to teach  Four types of teaching: o Transmission – teacher at a lectern o Skill Development – guided practice of a skill followed by independent practice. o Natural Development – the idea that the teacher provides rich, developmentally appropriate activities for each child. o Constructivist – the perspective that students bring their own constructs into the classroom. With them, student perceive and reflect on what they are learning. The purpose of the constructivist view is to broaden the student‟s perceptions of the world.  Reflection on your own teaching is one of the most important things a teacher must do. They must be committed to lifelong learning. McNally, et al., First lessons in behavior management  Behavior management is generally acknowledged to be one of the major tasks facing new teachers.  Teachers must maintain order and discipline among the students (under the direction of the principal).  The Teaching Quality Standard emphasizes the importance of respecting students‟ human dignity.  Student directed management has been shown to reduce the level of disruption.  Teaching well depends on establishing strong relationships of respect and trust between the student and the teacher.  There are different levels of interventions when a student misbehaves:  Nonverbal – think proximity interference or “the look”.  Verbal – question or hint the student on what the appropriate action is.  Logical Consequences – provide a choice  Communicate to the class what your expectations are.  Don‟t forget that there are parents and it is often beneficial to have them involved. Dr. Volante, Accountability, student assessment, and the need for a comprehensive approach  Evaluation: judgment applied to information gathering through assessment. It is the actual mark or letter grade assigned to report cards.  Assessment: gathering information about a learner‟s progress in order to make a judgment. It can be used to help the learner improve or to help the teacher modify the teaching environment.  Formative assessment does not lead to a mark or a grade. It is used for the purpose of planning instruction.  A summative assessment is used to assign a mark, to determine whether the student is ready to proceed.  There are two main types of assessment: criterion referenced, and norm-referenced.  Bloom‟s taxonomy has six components, ranging from remembering to synthesis and evaluation. Most standardized tests are unable to test analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Instead, they focus on remembering, understanding, and transferring.  Pros of standardized testing – students‟ knowledge is effectively assessed. Teachers can identify areas of strengths and weakness. Administrators can judge curriculum and policies.  Cons of standardized testing – often the test only tests a llimited range of knowledge and skills. A student‟s outcome on the exam is susceptible to test anxiety or other personal struggles. Teachers may feel pressured to teach for the test. Administration may experience unhealthy competition between schools.  Include sound classroom-based assessment data – Expand the repertoire.  Use standardized measures – as a supplement.  Have targets and standards that are realistic for students, teachers and schools.  Promote individual student improvements vs. cross-school comparisons  Utilize „value-added‟ criterion to interpret student performance. (to prevent teachers from shouldering the blame for poor performance).  Provide teachers and admin with PD focused on assessment literacy.  Review the assessment system regularly.  Always concern yourself with the quality of student learning. EDU 250 Final Notes 10/12/2012 8:43:00 AM Teaching in Diverse Contexts “Theme Four”  Public education is supposed to be the great equalizer. It is supposed to operate on the principle that regardless of a student‟s cultural background, socio-economic status or intellect, they will receive a first-class education. We will simply not settle for anything less than each and every student being afforded the chance to secure a bright future - Edgar Schmidt, October 12, 2008  Parents can choose from public, Catholic, Francophone, private schools and charter schools. They can also use online resources or home school their children.  In Alberta, Public and Catholic schools are publicly funded fully through per-student allocations.  Every individual who at Sept 1 in a year is 6 years of age or older and younger than 19 is entitled to have access to an education program.  The right of a religious minority to establish a separate school district is enshrined in legislation.  When there are enough students to warrant it, parents whose first language is French have a right to have their child educated in French.  In Alberta, private schools are typically used to preserve cultural, linguistic, and religious distinctions. The “Domain of the Rich and Famous” stereotype does not hold true in Alberta.  Charter schools are autonomous, non-profit public schools designed to provide innovative or enhanced education programs that improve the acquisition of student skills, attitudes, and knowledge in some measurable way. o Cannot be denominational. o Can‟t charge tuition fees. o Created and run by parents or non-profit societies. o Must be approved by the ministry of education. o Considered “public schools”. o Same per pupil allocation as a “regular” public school. Edwin G. Ralph “Promoting Teaching in Rural Schools”  In recent years, increasing urbanization has resulted in a decrease in rural populations. As a result, there are more multi-grade classrooms, small school closures, realignment of bus routes, itinerant staff assignments, and amalgamation of rural school divisions.  However, rural schools need teachers. There will be an ongoing need to hire teachers because veteran teachers will reach retirement age, there are not substantially more students entering the education field, and most students choose placements in metropolitan areas.  Concerns that rural school interns have is the ability to secure suitable living accommodations, the extra travel expenses, and the lack of access to instructional resources, cultural, leisure, entertainment facilities.  Advantages that are named by these student teachers include a stronger relationship with students, more community involvement, the opportunity to engage in more school activities, fewer student discipline problems, and the opportunity to secure a rural teaching position.  Disadvantages of teaching in rural schools include the lack of professional resources, an invasion of privacy, inadequate living accommodations, isolation from staff/peers, work overload, greater expense (for student teachers), isolation from support groups and a lack of diversity in the community.  Advice for those who have rural placements: o Be involved in school/community activities. o Be aware on constant public scrutiny. o Choose mentor teachers who have skills in mentorship and are good matches. o Have strong preparation and planning for your rural placement from the university. o Make resources known and available. o Collaborate to find accommodations. o Have reduced cost programs for rural placements. Michelle Bishop “Speaking From Experience”  Michelle spent the first three years of her teaching career in a rural setting. She chose rural because the need was there and she wanted a full time position.  She lists the following as advantages to rural placements: o Opportunity to build your resume. o Community involvement (appreciative of your efforts) o Fewer student disciplinary problems (depending on community). o Opportunity to rub elbows with principals, superintendents, etc. on a regular basis within the community. o Great respect for teachers, as professionals, in the community. o Opportunity to try new ideas. o Exposure to new cultures/lifestyles = personal growth  She lists the following disabilities for rural placements o Same as E. G. Ralph o Culture shock o Academic achievement, attendance, and school completion may not be valued in the community. o Work can be “all consuming”  Ways that rural community position can change one‟s practice: o Time away from distractions to focus on developing teaching resources. o Forced to develop strong organizational skills when teaching multi-grade classrooms. o Appreciate the importance of mentorship. o Confidence to teach subjects beyond major/minor. o Excellent evaluations make resume stand out. o Personal growth is inevitable. o Personal stories.  She gives the following advice for rural placements: o Check with school division about pedagogy resources, consultants, and PD opportunities. o Go in with the commitment to finish what you start. o Research tax incentives. o Research the culture of the community. o Make memories and be memorable. o Take full advantage of being away from distractions. o Put in the effort it takes to get excellent evaluations to support your applications in other districts down the road. Lynn Bosetti “Alberta Charter Schools: Paradox and Promise”  The promise of charter schools lies in fostering innovation and efficiency in public education and more in providing schools of choice for parents and in addressing diverse values and goals of education.  Positive outcomes of charter schools: sense of community and strong parental commitment to their children‟s schools.  The Social Contect: o Increasingly heterogeneous society. This means that there exist fewer shared beliefs, cultural references, and practices. o Population increasingly mobile. o The goals of pubic education are not clearly defined and agreed upon. o There exists a perceived crisis in public education. o Charter schools are a step away from a neutral one size fits all approach.  Applying Free Market Thinking o Providing parents the choice of which school their child attends. o Increased number of students and the dollars attached to them serve as rewards to those schools that attract students. o Open competition should raise standards, as all schools strive to attract students.  Private vs. Public Goals of Education o Government and professional educators view education as serving the common good.  Equal educational opportunity.  Address issues of diversity, quality education, access, and accountability. o However, parents work for what is best for their child. Sometimes, this means accessing better opportunities than some parents receive. o Wanting the best for one‟s own children is constructed as a natural parental impulse with the caveat potentially at the expense of some else‟s child being rendered invisible.  Criticisms of Charter Schools o The creation of value communities reflect little fiefdoms catering to the interests of their own social, ethnic, or cultural group without concern for the larger social good. o Contribute further to the fragmentation of society. o Exclude those who do not adhere to the values of the network.  The Appeal of School Choice o School choice appeals to those who value competiveness, individualism, and achievement and undermines responsibility of public service, ruptures the relationship between schools and local community, and diverts education from the responsibility of improving education for all students. o Promoters of educational markets assert that, given new opportunities, those parents from non-dominant cultural groups and social classes will exercise more choice over their child‟s schooling, but what will really happen is that those families who already possess cultural and economic resources will simply add to their existing advantages further enhancing social economic polarization.  Conclusions o Charter schools hold promise for school improvement given freedom from bureaucratic structure and increased accountability. o They fail to live up to the promise given lack of start-up funding, capital grants, and technical support. o In a pluralistic society, the ideal of a common comprehensive school what can address the diverse needs and values of all children is no longer feasible. o Market solutions appear to be governments preferred solutions to these problems, but may not be the best one; we need continued debate. Haig-Brown, et al. “The Sacred Circle: Spirituality and Joe Duquette High School”  Teachings of the sacred circle are accounts of reality passed from generation to generation through legends, story telling, and participation in rituals and ceremonies.  Represents the cosmic order, the unity of all things in the universe.  The philosophy of the Indian is built on the perception that in the order of the universe, human beings are last. They know that their lives are dependent on the lives of others and yet other‟s lives are not depended on them.  Also called the medicine wheel.  To be healthy means to live in a meaningful vision of one‟s wholeness.  Principles of Indian Philosophy: o Wholeness o Change o Process o Material Reality vs Spiritual Reality o Connection with other creations o Capacity to create further potentiality through learning and culture. o We transcend the limitations of mere materiality. o Spiritual dimensions of human development may be understood in terms of four related capacities.  Sweetgrass ceremonies, pipe ceremonies, sweat lodges,  Joe Duquette high school focuses on healing and that focus fits with the emphasis on aboriginal culture and spirituality.  Some of the school‟s success arises out of the never-ending tensions between the healing focus and the academic one. Video Series th “The 8 Fire”  Catherine Boyd and Kevin Carson, EPS “Application Process and Hiring Practices”  Nancy Petersen, City Center Education Project, EPS “Towards and Equal Playing Field”  Discusses poverty, especially multi generational poverty. o Used to think extreme poverty was isolated in the inner city. o Know that it is spread throughout the city o Uses census data, such as education, government transfers, immigration, language, low income, only parent families, as well as unemployment. o Moving (mobility) has a big effect on students. o Students are labeled as socially vulnerable based on the above criteria. o If schools have a majority of socially vulnerable students, then it is much more difficult to help the students.  Culture of Poverty o Until you understand that your own culture dictates how you translate everything you see and hear, you will never be able to see or hear things in any other way.  - Rupert Ross, Dancing with a ghost o Generational poverty – a child‟s family has been living in poverty for many generations and has shaped the day to day living of a family. o Institutions are structured around the middle class. o Social Norms of Poverty  Food bank knowledge, as well as best throw away food, get out of jail, obtain a gun, problems with a used car, how to get by without electricity, how to entertain with only yourself, how to get access to food stamps, where free medical clinics are, navigate without a car, etc.  The skill set that you need to survive.  Discusses examples of registering a kindergarten student for school. Parents enter and announce their intentions, often cannot read the registration forms, and do not always understand how to wait patiently. o Social Norms of Middle Class  Use ATM, which stores sell which brands, students are expected to go to school, can order at a restaurant, how to behave at a shopping mall, house insurance, mortgage, pension plan, difference between principle and interest, if students have trouble is school they will contact the teacher, library card, where to vote, repair items when they break, know how to use tools, own at least two of a laptop, computer, tv, cell phone, etc.  Families coming out of poverty do not have these social norms because we do no recognize this as a teachable moment. Instead, we are often judgmental.  Must be aware of the child‟s perspective and use teachable moments. o Social Norms of Wealth  Can read a menu in several languages, many favorite restaurants around the world, favorite artist, can read a corporate financial statement, easily converse about current events, know how to hire domestic help, ensure confidentiality among those staff, fly first class, belong to private club, children go to private school, on boards of charities.  Combining the School and Agencies o What would it look like if family therapists were available in school, after school care programs were offered, hot meals were served, etc. o Foundational Beliefs  All students must complete high school. Poverty cannot be a limiting factor. People without a high school education are more likely to be socially depended, the jobs they have are typically lower paying, and most likely to be eliminated during layoffs. Families often do not value a high school diploma for various reasons. Perhaps they think that the student wouldn‟t respect them, may forget about the family, etc. The program had to let parents understand the value of a high school diploma.  Students coming from socially vulnerable communities will receive excellent education. Historically, money had gone towards paying staff. For many inner city schools, money had been spent on people to work with the students. Looking into the resources available, many building lacked, there may not be a library, textbooks (some have no textbooks), etc. This seems counter intuitive to have school buildings offering second class resources when the purpose of the program is to drastically improve the quality of education among the students. The students who need the best quality education have parents who are least able to advocate on the behalf of their children.  The needs of the whole child must be met as a means towards successful learning and school completion. Children may be coming into class hungry, tired, without a caring parent to send them off to school. Many of the students had unpredictable lives. Many were caregivers at home, their parents have their own personal issues such as mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse. Large families in one bedroom apartments were common. Many children slept in living rooms. The change from this environment to school can be drastic for a child.  Example: a student coming in 45 minutes late can either be seen as a behavioral problem, or it can be seen as a miracle that that child chose to came to school, despite the potential family issues that exist. What the school decided to do was to welcome students who are late into the school and provide them with pens, paper, and a textbook. What they found was a dramatic increase in students actually coming to class, as well as a reduction in the amount of classroom disruptions. After a month, there was a staff meeting where teachers confronted the office about being “too nice” to the late students. The principle discussed how they needed to change their perspective on lateness.  Strong relationships and partnerships are the foundation of success – shared responsibility and leadership. Changes in how the school functions are difficult to implement. Having a youth worker available to work with students is important, even when it means that those students will be removed from their classroom. The way the school and agencies practice needed to be changed. Therapists were not prepared for recess supervision.  This way of working requires everyone to practice differently.  Current Landscape o Terms such as “Schools as hubs” have become common. This is the idea that the school can serve the community outside of the regular hours of the school. o Many pilots or models of practice across the province. o Both provincial and local governments are funding initiatives of this nature. If this kind of model is the solution to poverty, the funding structure must be reassessed. o The New Education Act supports the involvement of community towards school success.  Lesson‟s Learned from this Program o Relationships are essential to develop. You must connect with the students. The students will only engage when they trust you and when they know that you believe in them. o Rigor and Relevance are also important. Many students are behind grade level and programming must consider the skills, especially with regards to reading and writing. We need to accommodate these skills with their emotional development. o Must engage children at the level that they are capable of. o Partnerships – shared responsibility, increased capacity to support and serve, creative solutions.  Example: when a child is removed from their home, they do not come to school. Many students would not have attended school in the reserve, so when they are removed from his home, and placed in Edmonton, then they cannot function. They require specialized therapy and care. Creative solutions are required in order to integrate the student into the classroom. o Community wants to share in the journey of successful school engagement and ultimately school success for all of today‟s youth. Communities feel a responsibility to these youth. Lynn Farrugia and Shelley Shwartz “English as a Second Language”  ESL 101 o The best time to learn English in an academic setting is at age 15. This is because they are comfortable in their own language.  Some courses teach that it is younger children who learn more quickly. o English must be explicitly taught. It cannot be soaked up in the classroom. Explanations, teaching, visuals, etc. are needed. o Some English language learners choose not to speak until they are comfortable speaking sentences. o Fluency in a native language contributes to a more rapid acquisition of language. o Many students who are Canadian born of immigrants have a lot of trouble with English as a Second Language. This is especially true for High School because the language becomes more dense. o It can take up to 7-9 years to acquire fluent academic English. o Oral language is critical to a student‟s success in reading and writing. o Most native English speakers have about 5000 words when they start kindergarten.  Need to learn about 3000 words per year in order to keep up.  15 000 words are needed to “read to learn” at an early grade four level.  50 000 words are needed to earn a basic high school diploma.  85 000 words are needed to enter university.  200 000 words are needed to earn a university degree.  Acronyms o ELL – English Language Learner o ESL – English as a Second Language (program) o LFS – Limited Formal Schooling o L1 – First Language o L2 – Second Language o SLP – English Language Proficiency o EAL – English as an Additional Language o BICS – Basic Interpersonal Communicational Skills  Playground talk. o CALP - Cognitive Academic Learning Proficiency  Academic English.  Culturally Welcoming Classrooms o School welcome signs in different languages. o Books and resources in the library that focus on more than one cultural perspective. o Hiring of more culturally representative staff in schools. o International week celebrations. o Guest speakers from diverse backgrounds during Read-In week.  Profile of Students o Born in Canada with multi-language families that do not speak English at home.  It is important to speak the native language. Some families move here and expect to only speak English, but this is problematic to language development. o Born in Canada into families speaking English and other languages at home. o Foreign born with literacy in English and other languages. o Foreign born with literacy in other languages but not English. o Foreign born with limited or no literacy in any language.  Multi-lingual Families o Many immigrant families maintain their home language. o Important to know your students.  Factors the Affect Fluency o Age upon arrival o Parents literacy level o Literacy in the home language o Home language similarities to English o Prior experience with English o Affective traits  High School Completion o 70% of all students complete high school. o Only approximately 50% of ESL students graduate in three years.  Education Code o 301: Foreign born o 303: Canadian born o 302: non-funded o 55: International Student o 640: Refugee student  Goals of Language Learning o To catch up to their English speaking peers in understanding and communicating in spoken English.  Purpose of Learning a New Language o Many different reasons, which can include needing to communicate in a basic way, to pass a class, become a doctor, or speak with family or friends.  Language Acquisition o BICS – Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills  Day to day conversation.  Can be learned in 6 months to 2 years.  Face to face interactions.  High-frequency vocabulary.  Simple language structures.  Low-pressure situations. o Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency  Language of schools  Lectures, formal writing, grammar, etc.  Several years to obtain.  Advanced language structure.  ELL Characteristics o Circumlocution – does the student use circumlocution as a strategy?  Using other words to explain one word. o Approximation  Turtle/Tutor o Word Replacement  Lawn mower = grass cutter, outside vacuum.  Brick and Mortar Words o Bricks – curriculum words. Vocabulary specific to the content and the concepts being taught. It takes 7-12 times of working with a word to learn it. o Mortar – connecting words that span across the curriculum. These include because, then, therefore, betwee, among, leave, use, he, she, it, notice, think, analyze, plan, compare, prove, and characteristics. o Sentence frames are used to provide the mortar words, which will enable students to use language to compare and contrast. o Some words are critically important, while others are useful, and some are simply interesting.  Instruction of Vocabulary – must be direct o Explain, elaborate, recycle words. o Allow many opportunities to use the words. o Manipulate the text to show that the words can be useful in different contexts. o Build in lots of repetition. o Use vocabulary organizers. o Personal dictionaries. o Use themes.  Make Personal Connections o Be real with your students. Dianne Wishart Leard and Brett Lashua “Popular Media, Critical Pedagogy, and Inner City Youth”  Methodology o Projects that sought to create and incorporate popular culture in urban classrooms o Not just critiquing popular texts but also focusing on the relations and social contexts o Putting critical pedagogy into practice  Critical pedagogy provides a way of seeing an unjust social order and revealing how this injustice has caused problems in the lives of young people who live in impo
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