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HE ED110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Rationing In The United Kingdom, Trans Fat


Department
Health Education
Course Code
HE ED110
Professor
Angela Bayduza
Study Guide
Midterm

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Nutritional Basics:
What we eat has a profound effect on health and wellbeing.
61% of Canadians are overweight, 24% obese.
by 2021, 70% of males and 50% of females overweight or obese.
50 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
Macronutrients (bodies need great amts) include protein, fat and carbs.
Micronutrients (bodies need in small amts) include vitamins and minerals
We digest to obtain these nutrients from food.
6 Classes of Essential Nutrients:
Water, Protein, Carbs, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals
Amount of macronutrients we need depend on ACTIVE METABOLIC RATE (# of
calories we burn on a daily basis) and BASAL METABOLIC RATE (energy needed to
sustain body at rest, basic functions such as breathing, influenced by age gender
weight)
Calories = the measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food
Energy in food is expressed as kilocalories
Humans need 200 calories to meet basic functional energy needs
Energy Balance - matching energy demands with the appropriate amount of energy
derived from macronutrients. When it equals out we are maintaining our current weight.
EER (estimated energy requirement) BMR
Average caloric intake = 2500 calories per day.
What influences caloric intake?
Mood (food and emotions)
Avaliability of fast food
serving sizes
social pressures
family traditions
WATER
We lose 8-10 cups/day, recommended intake is 8-12 cups.
Avoid alcohol/caffiene can make me less hydrated
PROTEIN
Basic framework for muscles, bones, blood, hair
complete proteins = animal proteins
incomplete proteins = grains, beans, seeds
complementary protein = combining incomplete proteins to get sufficent protein
CARBS
Provide our body with glucose (fuel)
Monosaccharides = glucose, fructose, galactose
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Disacchardies = sucrose, lacrose, maltose (contain 2 sugar units by chemical
bond, body mustt break down
Polysaccharides = starch, glycogen. more than 10 units of sugar, must be broken
down.
Glycemic Index: measures how much carbs is likely to raise your blood sugar (hi med
low)
LOW = prevent diabetes , HI = found in grain products
FIBRE
Dietary Fibre = non-digestible form of carbs occuring naturally in plant foods (leaves,
stem, skins)
Functional Fibre = isolated, non-digestible carbs added to food to benefit
Total fibre = sum of both
Soluable fibre = absorbs water, swells (feel full, barley oatmeal, fruits)
Insoluble fibre (prevent constipations), cellulose, lignin
Sudden ^ to fibre can lead to bloating
FAT
unsaturated fats = come from plant/veg oils
monounsaturated = ^ blood cholesterol levels , peanuts olive oil
polyunsaturated = prevent blood clots fish walnuts flaxseed
trans fatty acids = hydrogenated unsaturated fatty acids (baked/fried food, bad)
saturated fats = solid at room temp, linked to chloesteral (form of fat that circulates in
blood)
made up of HDL, LDL, VLDL
hdl - good, ldl - bad
Healthy Eating
follow canada food guide
made in 1942, acknowledge wartime food rationing, made to improve overall
health
constant evolution
emphasis on cereals, breads, grains, vegtables and fruit
lean meats, poultry and fish
lower-fat dairy
limit salt, alcohol, sugars caffiene
serving size/quantitys, advice for diff ages/stages
groups: grains, veg/fruit, milk, meat, added shit
read food labels
serving size vs portion size = serving size = amt of food all the info is on, one serving.
portion size = amt of food on our plate
grain = 1 slice of bread, 1 muffin
veg = 1/2 cup of veg
milk = 1 cup milk
meat = 75g
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