When: 551 479 b. c. e (mid 6th c late 5th c) Historical significance: started with confucius, confucianism has been used to identify an ideology of benevolent kingship used by empires to legitimize themselves in various parts of eastern asia, education and family were so important, five cardinal relationships. Sig: chinese thinkers of the warring states period, legalism is thus not a scientific category but rather a scholarly convention, reinforcing the ruler"s authority was crucial for social stability and that this. 4. authority should be absolute and limitless. major legalist thinkers had rich experience as administrators, military advisers, and diplomats, their writings are often dominated by practical issues. When: 1206 1255 (early 13th c- mid 13th c) Sig: he was one of the greatest travelers of the middle ages, he spent thirty years visiting every muslim country of his day, he recorded in accurate detail the social and political life he observed on his.