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Michael Polushin

Who/What: Confucianism/Chinese Philosophy th th When: 551–479 B.C.E (mid 6 c – late 5 c) Where: China Historical significance: 1. Started with Confucius 2. Confucianism has been used to identify an ideology of benevolent kingship used by empires to legitimize themselves in various parts of eastern Asia. 3. Education and family were so important 4. Five cardinal relationships Who/What: Daoism/(Taoism) native religion of China rd th When: 3 c – 5 c Where: China Hist. Sig: 1. Together with Confucianism and Buddhism, comprises the main body of traditional Chinese culture. 2. Daoism provided a philosophical foundation for the development of science 3. Daoists regard Dao as the origin of all things, including human beings, and they believe that people can return to Dao and thus attain immortality. 4. Daoists also acquired solid knowledge of certain chemical reaction processes. Who/What: Legalism/Chinese philosophy When: 453–221 B.C.E. Where: China Hist. Sig: 1. Chinese thinkers of the Warring States period 2. Legalism is thus not a scientific category but rather a scholarly convention. 3. Reinforcing the ruler's authority was crucial for social stability and that this authority should be absolute and limitless. 4. major Legalist thinkers had rich experience as administrators, military advisers, and diplomats, their writings are often dominated by practical issues Who/what: Marco Polo/Venetian traveller th When: 13 c Where: Mongolia, China Hist. Sig: 1. The travel account of Polo is usefl for gaining insight into philosophy and religion in Yuan dynasty. 2. first white man to record his visit to the Eastern court of Kublai Khan 3. Historians speculate that Polo's role for Kublai Khan was to inspect provinces and collect taxes. 4. Some historians believe that Marco Polo influenced Christopher Columbus in his desire to sail west over the Atlantic to China. Who/What: Mongke/ When: Where: Hist. Sig: Who/What: Golden Horde/ When: Where: Hist. Sig: Who/What: Batu/ Mongolian military leader When: 1206–1255 (early 13 c- mid 13 c) Where: Mongolia Hist. Sig: 1. Mongol prince, the second son of Genghis Khan's eldest son Jochi. 2. Batu commanded the army that conquered the northeastern Rus principalities 3. Batu was the first khan to rule in the Khanate of Qipchaq 4. Batu followed a policy of religious toleration, but seems not to have been pleased by the conversion of his brother Berke to Islam, Who/What: Ibn Battuta/Arab traveller and writer When: 1304- 1368 Where: Arab Hist. Sig: 1. He was one of the greatest travelers of the Middle Ages 2. He spent thirty years visiting every Muslim country of his day 3. He recorded in accurate detail the social and political life he observed on his journeys. 4. Ibn Battuta journeyed through the territories of The Golden Horde (the steppes of Central Asia) Who/What: Genghis khan/ Mongolian Conqueror When: 1167 – 1227 (mid 12 c – early 13 c) th Where: Mongolia Hist. Sig: 1. Genghis Khan merged several warring tribal confederations in the steppes (level and treeless land in southeastern Europe and Asia) of Mongolia 2. He united Mongolia into a single nationality, establishing the largest contiguous empire in history 3. He introduced a writing system into Mongolian society and forced the Mongolian nobility to become literate. 4. creation of an army with absolute discipline out of the unruly tribes. Who/What: Five Basic Cardinal Relationship/Confucious filial relations When: mid 6 c- late 5 c th Where: China Hist. Sig: 1. Family as the basic component 2. Father on the top 3. Father to son 4. Husband to wife 5. Older brother to younger brother 6. friends Who/What: Five Pillars of the Faith/the Qurʾān states five basic constituents of faith (īmān) When: 622 AD Where: Iberian Peninsula Historical sig: 1. profession of faith that there is no God but Allah (monotheism) 2. praying 5 times and fasting in the holy month Ramadan 3. Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in life 4. Charity , these constituents help building a strong Islamic society. Who/What: Li Shih-min (Taizong)/first emperor of the Tang dynasty When: 599–649 Where: China Hist. Sig: 1. Taizong was quick to recognize the strategic military value of his extensive knowledge of the geography, customs, and politics of the many kingdoms to the west 2. Taizong's imperial patronage gave Xuanzang a position of great prestige and power within the Chinese Buddhist establishment of Chang'an. 3. As a Buddhist philosopher and scholar, he is probably best characterized as a radical conservative. 4. He built his power through military. Who/What: Han Yu/Chinese writer When: 768 - 824 Where: China Hist. Sig: 1. He was the first to emphasize “correct
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