Who/What: Confucianism/Chinese Philosophy
When: 551–479 B.C.E (mid 6 c – late 5 c)
1. Started with Confucius
2. Confucianism has been used to identify an ideology of benevolent kingship
used by empires to legitimize themselves in various parts of eastern Asia.
3. Education and family were so important
4. Five cardinal relationships
Who/What: Daoism/(Taoism) native religion of China
When: 3 c – 5 c
1. Together with Confucianism and Buddhism, comprises the main body of
traditional Chinese culture.
2. Daoism provided a philosophical foundation for the development of science
3. Daoists regard Dao as the origin of all things, including human beings, and
they believe that people can return to Dao and thus attain immortality.
4. Daoists also acquired solid knowledge of certain chemical reaction processes.
Who/What: Legalism/Chinese philosophy
When: 453–221 B.C.E.
1. Chinese thinkers of the Warring States period
2. Legalism is thus not a scientific category but rather a scholarly convention.
3. Reinforcing the ruler's authority was crucial for social stability and that this
authority should be absolute and limitless.
4. major Legalist thinkers had rich experience as administrators, military advisers, and
diplomats, their writings are often dominated by practical issues
Who/what: Marco Polo/Venetian traveller th
When: 13 c
Where: Mongolia, China
1. The travel account of Polo is usefl for gaining insight into philosophy and
religion in Yuan dynasty.
2. first white man to record his visit to the Eastern court of Kublai Khan
3. Historians speculate that Polo's role for Kublai Khan was to inspect provinces
and collect taxes.
4. Some historians believe that Marco Polo influenced Christopher Columbus in
his desire to sail west over the Atlantic to China.
Who/What: Golden Horde/
Who/What: Batu/ Mongolian military leader
When: 1206–1255 (early 13 c- mid 13 c)
1. Mongol prince, the second son of Genghis Khan's eldest son Jochi.
2. Batu commanded the army that conquered the northeastern Rus
3. Batu was the first khan to rule in the Khanate of Qipchaq
4. Batu followed a policy of religious toleration, but seems not to have been
pleased by the conversion of his brother Berke to Islam,
Who/What: Ibn Battuta/Arab traveller and writer When: 1304- 1368
1. He was one of the greatest travelers of the Middle Ages
2. He spent thirty years visiting every Muslim country of his day
3. He recorded in accurate detail the social and political life he observed on his
4. Ibn Battuta journeyed through the territories of The Golden Horde (the
steppes of Central Asia)
Who/What: Genghis khan/ Mongolian Conqueror
When: 1167 – 1227 (mid 12 c – early 13 c) th
1. Genghis Khan merged several warring tribal confederations in the steppes
(level and treeless land in southeastern Europe and Asia) of Mongolia
2. He united Mongolia into a single nationality, establishing the largest
contiguous empire in history
3. He introduced a writing system into Mongolian society and forced the
Mongolian nobility to become literate.
4. creation of an army with absolute discipline out of the unruly tribes.
Who/What: Five Basic Cardinal Relationship/Confucious filial relations
When: mid 6 c- late 5 c th
1. Family as the basic component
2. Father on the top
3. Father to son
4. Husband to wife
5. Older brother to younger brother
Who/What: Five Pillars of the Faith/the Qurʾān states five basic
constituents of faith (īmān)
When: 622 AD Where: Iberian Peninsula
1. profession of faith that there is no God but Allah (monotheism)
2. praying 5 times and fasting in the holy month Ramadan
3. Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in life
4. Charity , these constituents help building a strong Islamic society.
Who/What: Li Shih-min (Taizong)/first emperor of the Tang dynasty
1. Taizong was quick to recognize the strategic military value of his extensive
knowledge of the geography, customs, and politics of the many kingdoms to
2. Taizong's imperial patronage gave Xuanzang a position of great prestige and
power within the Chinese Buddhist establishment of Chang'an.
3. As a Buddhist philosopher and scholar, he is probably best characterized as a
4. He built his power through military.
Who/What: Han Yu/Chinese writer
When: 768 - 824
1. He was the first to emphasize “correct