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History 110 October Midterm Study Guide2.doc

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University of Alberta
Michael Polushin

History 110: October Midterm Study Guide Confucianism Who/What: A Chinese philosophy founded by Confucius When: 221 B.C.E. to beginning of 20th century Where: China Historical Significance: Confucianism was a Chinese philosophy founded by Confu- cius that emerged during the chaos and instability of the Warring States Period. it places great importance on age, respect, rituals, and social etiquette. The core of the philoso- phy is founded upon Five Basic Relationships: Emperor to subjects, father to sons, hus- band to wife, older brother to younger brother, and friend to friend - relationships which were used as models for social order and empire building through successive Chinese imperial dynasties. Confucianisms influence is particularly evident in the implementa- tion of the civil service system by the Emperor Gaozu, an aspect continued and expand- ed upon by successive rulers such as the Empress Wu. Daoism Who/What: Chinese philosophy When: 221 B.C.E to beginning of 20th century Where: China Historical Significance: Daoism is a Chinese philosophy concerned mainly with maintaining balance on all major aspects of life. Followers of this philosophy believed in the idea of every action has an opposite reaction, a principle that influenced the policies of the Chinese imperial Tang dynasty. Daoism found great favour with the Tang, who believed that their right to power stemmed from their ancestor, an ancient Daoist diety, and led the Tang rulers - except for Empress Wu - to adopt the surname Li in its honour. The Daoist principles of ruling without ruling and diplomacy are particularly evident in the Emperor Taizongs clever diplomatic maneuvering with various northern barbar- ians, accounting for the relative peace and stability of the period. Legalism Who/What: Chinese philosophy When: 221 B.C.E to beginning of 20th century Where: China Historical Significance: Legalism in China is very activist. Generally, guide empire and subjects through 3 basic principles: serve the emperor, build large armies, and serve the state. In practice: Gaozus military rebellion in 619 where he seized the throne and established the Tang Dynasty, Great Wall of China. Empress Wu defeated Western Turks and was able to establish a Chinese protectorate in the western states by 661. Marco Polo Who/What: famous Venetian merchant traveller When: 1254 - 1324 (mid 13th century to early 14th century) Where: Venice and China Historical Significance: Marco Polo was a Venetian traveller employed in the service of Kublai Khan as an envoy and advisor. The travel accounts he kept throughout his ad- ventures not only helped keep the Khan informed of developments in his empire, but it also provide modern historians with detailed and invaluable insight into the customs, traditions, and trade of that period. His return journey from China back to Europe not only transferred various technologies such as ice-cream making and pasta, but his fabled tales of the Far East prompted innumerable quests by Europeans to discover the splen- dors of the Orient for themselves. Khublai Khan Who/What: Mongolian Emperor When: 1215 - 1294 (early 13th century - late 13th century C.E.) Where: Mongol China Historical Significance: A fearsome Mongol leader, Khubilai Khan defeated the Southern Song to establish his own dynasty, the Yuan, upon his unification of China for the first time since the early 12th century. The Mongolian leader also expanded his em- pire to include modern day Vietnam, Burma, and Java, making China, for the first time in its history, a considerable sea power. At court, the emperors unusually diverse court allowed for a previously unprecedented degree of cultural interaction, necessitating the introduction of a universal script to accommodate the numerous languages in the em- pire. Furthermore, Khubilai Khans patronage of Tibetan Buddhism accounts for the continued devotion to it by Mongols today. Mongke Who/What: brother of Khubilai Khan When: early 13th century - mid 13th century Where: China Historical Significance: grandson of Genghis Khan and heir to the Mongol empire. Laid the framework for the administration of the mongolian empire. Completed the con- solidation of China and attempted to rule it through the framework of the traditional Mongol household. Golden Horde Who/What: Mongol empire When: 1237 - 1359 (mid 12th century - mid 13th century) Where: Modern day Russia, west of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan Historical Significance: Semi-dependent part of the Mongol empire established by Batu. Known for their military conquests, particularly those in Russia, Hungary, and Poland, the Golden Horde was also an immensely wealthy and powerful empire. Their isolationist policies in Russia can be traced as a chief cause of Russias later economic and technological backwardness, as well as their authoritarian style of government. Their military conquests were also instrumental in the creation of trade routes between the East and the West; technological advancements such as paper money and gunpow- der was adopted by the Europeans as well as less favouable acquisitions, such as the Black Death. Arguably their most important effect on the Western world was the begin- ning of similar international exploration and trade, which sparked a race to discover new trade routes to the Oriental East - and led to the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus. Batu Who/What: Mongolian Emperor When: mid 13th century Where: China Historical Significance: Mongol prince, the second son of Genghis Khans oldest son, Jochi. Batu commanded the army that conquered the northeastern Russian principali- ties. He was the first khan to rule in the Khanate of Qipchaq. Batu followed a policy of religious tolerance, but was not pleased by the conversion of his brother, Berke to Islam. Ibn Batuta Who/What: famous 14th century traveller When: 1304-1368 Where: Arab regions of the world Historical Significance: Ibn Batuta was one of the greatest travellers of the Middle Ages. He spent thirty years visiting every Muslim country of his day. Recorded incredi- bly detailed accounts of the social and political life he observed in his travels. His travel accounts provide a fairly accurate picture of the societies he visited, but still highlighted the bias through which he viewed these societies - the agency of certain traditions and cultures in the face of Islam. The impact of Islam on the societies he visited. Genghis Khan Who/What: When: Where: Historical Significance: Five Basic Relationships Who/What: When: Where: Historical Significance: Five Pillars of the Faith Who/What: The Five Basic Principles constituents of the faith of Islam, as outlined in the holy book, the Quran When: 622 A.D - present Where: Iberian Peninsula - the world Historical Significance: Introduced the concept of monotheism to many cultures, profession of the faith that there is no God but Allah. 2) praying five times a day and fasting on the holy month of Ramadan, 3) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in ones life 4) Charity - these constituents helping to build a strong Islamic society. Li Shih-min (Taizong) Who/What: When: Where: Historical Significance: Empress Wu Who/What: Chinese Emperor/Empress When: 625 - 705 (mid 7th century - early 8th century C.E.) Where: China Historical Significance: Empress Wu is the only female sovereign in Chinese history to have ruled as an Emperor, as opposed to merely being the consort of one. Her rise to power signified a challenge to a traditional, patriarchally-dominated society and a bla- tant defiance of the gender role assigned to women of her time. In addition to expand- ing the civil service examinations, the Empress, seeking to legitimize her reign, patron- ized Buddhism and contributed new characters to a script. Han Yu Who/What: When: Where: Historical Significance: Vigourously defended Confucianism against Buddhism and Taoism on cultural grounds. Formulated a three-fold theory on which human nature has superior, medium, and inferior grades. Muhammad Who/What: Founder of Islam, past prophet of the Muslims When: 622 A.D Where: Arabian Peninsula Historical Significance: As a young man, Muhammad engaged in commerce and trade. The Quran was revealed to him. His deeds are called Sunnah. His saying are called Hadith and are followed by Muslims for guidance. Quran Who/What: When: Where: Historical Significance: The Four Noble Truths Who/What: When: Where:
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