HGP Midterm 2 Notes

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Human Geography and Planning
Kurtis Borth

HGP Midterm 2 Notes What did Jared Diamond propose? - Gun, Germs, and Steel, Collapse - proposed that the physical geography of the world contributed to the inequalities of today (not cultural or biological superiority) - major axis in Europe and Asia were East to West and America and Africa were North to South. The axis made the spread of agriculture and domestic animals over areas with similar climate - geographic and environmental characteristics led to the immunity of diseases in agricultural animals - geographic luck What is the world systems theory? - Division of countries into Core, Semi-periphery and periphery categories. There is a power hierarchy between core and periphery, core benefits from exploiting the periphery and the periphery depends on the core. - The core – Dominant, powerful (military/economy) and wealthy countries. Fully industrialized (Examples: Canada, USA, Australia) - Semi Periphery – Newly industrialized countries, new economic and political power. Stabilizes the world. “Up and coming game changers” (Examples: India/China) - Periphery – Less developed countries, “Left behind” due to unstable gov’t, poor education, and conflict history. (Examples: Russia, 99% of Africa) What is the Dependency theory and what led to it? - The core countries are enriched by the impoverishment and the non- development of the peripheral countries. - Colonial history of external rule led to the dependence theory. The colonial core was pretty much extracted from the periphery and the core got capital, people, innovation What are some ways we can measure the well being of society? - Basic needs, social conditions, gross domestic product, gross national product, and gross national income. What are the limitations of GNI - The differences in religion, class, age, sex are missed and it doesn’t include social/environmental costs as well as subsistence economy (natural resources for basic needs such as hunting, gathering) What are some other measures of countries? - Genuine Wealth Assessment - Gross National happiness – the global indicator of progress, measuring both sustainable economy and social development. What does the Happy Planet Index measure? What data does it use? - HPI measures what “matters”: the extent to which countries deliver long, happy sustainable lives for the other people. Green = unhappy, red = unhappy - It uses global data on life expectancy, well-being and ecological footprint. What measures doe the UN’s World happiness report take into account? - GDP per capita, healthy life expectancy, freedom from corruption, freedom to make life choices What is the anthropocene? - The concept that considers our age to be geologically significant and that we’ve made huge geological impacts in the 55000 years we’ve been around like depleting ozone layers, rising sea levels What has been the impact of hunters, gatherers? - Many megafauna (large animal) extinctions around the world have been linked to human interaction/intervention and climate change What is the 3 waves theory? - A theory made in 2012, which stated that early North Americans came to North America in 3 waves. Majority of natives derived from this first group. Northern Natives derive ~50% genes from this first wave, Chipewyan ~90% from the first wave What’s the pristine myth? - The belief that the Americas in 1491 were an almost unmarked land “untrammeled by man” But they weren’t - Some estimates say that 20-80% or more of non-flooded Amazon forest was due to the anthropocene’s effects - “ what the eco-imagery would like to picture as a pristine, untouched primeval world in fact has been managed by people for millennia” – Denevan Who are some other people that said the pristine myth was wrong? - Jennings: “ The belief in pristine wilderness tends to deny the considerable presence of ancestors of today’s native americans, and the great mortality that occurred, and which justified the taking of their lands. Colonists proclaimed that they had mostly entered “empty lands” which is a MYTH - Martinez: “the main justifications by Europeans for genocide that the land was not used to its potential by the Natives was FALSE” - Kearns: “the view that americans merely passed over the land without a trace demeans the Indians. It makes them seem simply like an animal species and therefore deprives them of culture.” Estimates of population at the time people thought the pristine myth was true? - 50-70 million in Americas, 5 million North of the Rio Grande (North America) - LOTS OF NATIVES GONE… 80-95% of them What are geoglyphs and why were they used in the Amazon? - Stones or earth arranged on a landscape to make a certain pattern or picture. - Used in the Amazon to deal with the annual floods So as a result of wiping most of the Natives, what did the Europeans do and what do they all mean for the environment? - Colonialism - Industrialization - Capitalism - Exponential population growth - Bad news for the environment! What are some philosophical views on the environment? - Traditional o Shintoism – Worshipping the trees and paying respect to all plants and animals, which share life equal to a human. o Hinduism – Oneness of all beings, positivity towards nature “sacred groves” - Reformers o Oneness of life, ethic based on respect for all living things. o Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism - Monotheistic Faiths o Judaism – Torah forbade armies from destroying trees o Christianity – St. Francis of Assisi the “Patron Saint of Ecology” o Islam – Qu’ran states “I am setting on the Earth a Steward”, plant trees don’t pollute What is Anthropocentric? - A human centered morality. Only humans have intrinsic value while everything else in the natural world has only instrumental value and everything exists for us humans to use - What does the Antropocentric view have to do with religion? What did critics say? - In the book of genesis, God said to have dominion over the fish and the sea and all the earth - Critics said that the translation should have been stewardship, and recently there have been attempts by Christians, Muslims, and Jewish groups to integrate environmental practices into their faith. What is being ecocentric? - Also known as deep ecology, the criticism to Anthropocentrism. Everything in nature has intrinsic value, not just humans. Humans are part of nature and Egalitarianism is encouraged amongst all humans What was the Gaia hypothesis? - Made by James Lovelock, where the Earth is considered to be self-regulating by the inhabiting organisms through natural selection. - Not a god substitute though. What is Shallow Ecology? - Also known as enlightened Anthropocentric, humans are still a large focus but the environment should be protected because of the direct and indirect impacts on humankind. The environment should be protected, but only to a point where we are protected. Who were some early conservationists? - Thoreau – Wrote Walden during rampant deforestation - Audubon – Ornithologist and painter. - Roosevelt, John Muir What happened with the bison extermination? - Before 1492, there was an estimated 60 million of them. Native Americans heavily relied on them and hunted them A LOT. The low point was in 1902 where there were an estimated 23 buffaloes left. Now there are up to 400,000. - The US made a gov’t policy to help get rid of the Natives who relied upon the herds What and when were the first national parks in the world created? - 1872, Yellowstone was the very first one - 1885, Banff was Canada’s third national park What did President Roosevelt + John Muir create? - 5 new national parks, lots of bird sanctuaries, national game refuges, monuments, and a lot of forests. What did Rachel Carson’s “silent spring” expose? - The hazards of DDT and questioning the humanity’s faith in technological process. She’s also known as the mother of the environmental movement. What happened in the process of banning DDT? - President Kennedy ordered the science advisory committee to examine the issues raised by Carson’s book. - Debate shifted from if pesticides were dangerous to which ones were more dangerous - 1970s environmental movement was established, OPEC oil embargo (1979 oil shortage), Cleveland Cuyahoga river caught fire due to pollution What’s the blue marble? - A photo of the earth from space taken in 1972 from the Apollo 17 spacecraft. What is cognitive Dissonance? - two or more conflicting beliefs held by a person that leads to discomfort. The individual will alter their behavior in order to reduce the discomfort. How did climate have an impact on national psyche? - it composed of long term average weather patterns. - Composed of a system consisting of everything that affected climate and weather. What
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